Skip to main content

Full text of "Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science, 2(3) (Jul 2005)"

See other formats


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 
ISSN 1744-9669 
Volume 2, Number 3 
July 2005 


Edited by Vaen Sryayudhya 

The Morris Worm ... by Kit Tiyapan .291 

SPT Daiy ... by Kit Tyabandha .294 

Thai Culture ... by Kit Tyabandha .298 

English and American ... by Kit Tyabandha .306 

False Friend ... by Kit Tyabandha.309 

Plato ... by Kit Tyabandha .317 

Fred Hoyle... by Kit Tyabandha and Kit Tiyapan.347 

The Tale of Two Sisters ... by Kit Tyabandha .358 

Percolation in Medical Science ... by Kit Tyabandha .360 

On My Past Writings ... by Kit Tyabandha .365 













On the Present Simple Tense ... by Kit Tyabandha .383 

Book Introduction, A Kiwi Lanna ... by Kit Tyabandha .386 

Book Introduction, A British Lanna ... by Kit Tyabandha.387 


England 
2 5 th June, 2007 

Distribution 

Internet-searchable world-wide 






Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


The Morris Worm t 

Kit Tiyapan f 


30 th October 1996 


In 1988 a piece of 99 lines of code written by a 23 year-old Ph.D. 
student in Computer Science at Cornell University, Robert T. Morris, 
had crippled a large number of computers connected to the Internet. 
At 6 pm 2 nd November 1988 , a worm was set loose by its author. 
Within less than five hour's time from the launch, computers across US 
had to be shut down. At the time when Andy Sudduth at Harvard 
posted a message saying that there may be a virus loose on the Internet, the 
Internet was already coming apart. All the computers affected were not 
able to come up again until all the working worms had been removed 
from the Internet, which was four days later. The programme, which 
has been known afterward as the Morris Worm, had forced more than 
6,000 workstations, all of which were VAX and Sun machines, to be shut 
down. The estimated loss was thought to easily reach several million 
US dollars. It was claimed by Morris, afterward, that the effect from 
the code was meant to be much milder but for some small bugs within 
it. As a result, the whole of the Internet community was shaken. 

In contrast to a virus which mainly spreads itself via infected disks, 
a worm goes via the Internet. A virus alters a file and waits for the file 
to be activated by a user. A worm, on the other hand, acts on its own 
and is far more aggressive than a virus. Take the Morris worm as an ex¬ 
ample. It protects itself, seeks and stores information it needs, searches 
for victims and then attacks them, reports its progress, balances the sit¬ 
uation and makes decisions accordingly, and even destroys evidences 
and commits suicide. Moreover, the worm has got its own built in 
dictionary of words to be used in cracking passwords. To put in plain 
words, a worm is a killer robot while a virus a parasite. 

During the worm attack there were efforts trying to decompile the 
programme in order to find remedy. Among these were those made 

| First published in a Thai translation under the title 'Nhaun khaung 
Maurris', Sakkayaphab, 4, 3, 20-22, December 1996, ATPIJ, Japan. It was 
originally written in English, the present article. 

f This article was written while the author was at Tokyo Institute of 
Technology. 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


291 



Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


by the teams at the University of California at Berkeley, MIT, and at 
Purdue. Within less than 24 hours the team at Berkeley and the team 
at Purdue had found methods to slow down the spread of the worm. 
Ironically, not being less panicked at the fast spread of the worm was 
its author himself. Morris had contacted his friend at Harvard. They 
discussed a solution and eventually came up with one. Unfortunately 
the messages sent by these teams and others to tell about the remedies 
could not reach some of the affected sites as fast as they should have. 
This was because of the clogging of the networks. Also, at many of the 
sites the mail facility was shut down after the discovery that the worm 
spread via sendmail. Thus the message about the remedy were even 
further delayed. 

Since the happening, the Internet community has become much 
more aware of the importance of the security of their networks and 
systems. Within the same month of which the worm had appeared, 
an organisation was formed in response to the incident. It was called 
CERT, which stands for Computer Emergency Response Team. 

One of the interesting facts is that most of the computer viruses 
and worms that ever were, came from the academics. It is widely 
believed, at least within community of people who see the importance 
of security in computer systems, that the cases of these so-called white- 
collar crimes must be much higher than what we have heard. Many of 
the cases discovered are believed to have been covered up, and dealt 
with internally, in order to keep the good image which many companies 
have got, especially financial institutions and government authorities. 
Others simply goes undetected. The irony in this is that while the 
money involved increases exponentially in relation to the cases of its 
counterpart which are known as the blue-collar crimes, the risk of being 
caught is comparatively small. 

The field of computer and networks security is one which com¬ 
prises of two main parties, those who try to prevent on on side, and 
those who try to infringe on the other. As the technology leaps forward 
the way it is now, both parties will find it hard already only to keep 
abreast with new products and to catch up with new methods used 
by the other party. Though the preventors seem to be better manned 
and better equipped, it has got a difficulty of having to deal with en¬ 
emies who are in the dark. Also security does not come at no cost. 
On top of the cost of hardwares, softwares and personnel, there is also 
an inevitable trade-off between convenience of the users and the secu¬ 
rity of the systems. In other words, though in theory it might be true 
to say that the more secure the system is the better. But in reality it 


292 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 

all depends upon the consideration about the costs against the risks 
involved. 

§ Miscellaneous facts 


The Morris worm made use of finger command. This is one of the 
reason why many sites now block inbound fingering requests. 

The file /etc/passwd is world-readable. The security loop-hole of 
storing encrypted passwords in this file has been used by the worm. 

The use of the .rhosts file can also post a risk to security. This fact 
has been exploited by the worm. 

And lastly, as a quotation before ending, 

Robert T. Moris was convicted of violating the computer Fraud 
and Abuse Act (Title 18), and sentenced to three years of proba¬ 
tion, 400 hours of community service, a fine of $ 10,050, and the 
costs of his supervision. His appeal, filed in December, 1990, was 
rejected the following March. 

Zen and the Art of the Internet , by Brendan R Kehoe 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


293 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


SPT Daiy 
Kit Tyabandha, Ph.D. 
Introduction 


The works that go into this article were done during the year 2002 
while the author was at the then University of Manchester Institute of 
Science and Technology, England. The system Sanskrit-Pinyin-Tiyapan 
(SPT), as the name implies, is based on the romanisation of Sanskrit for 
consonants, the tone symbols for tones, and an added part for specific 
features of Thai (Daiy) by Tiyapan. 

SPT Daiy 


Definition 1. There are 44 consonants in the Thai alphabet, namely, 
voiceless voiced voiceless voiced 



una 

asp 

una 

asp 

una 

una 

asp 

una 



vel 


k 

kh 

kh 

g 

g 

g h 

n g 

(w) 

h h 

pre 


c 

ch 


j 

z 

D 

y 

s 

y 

ret 

d 

t 

th 


d 


dh 

n 

s 

r 

den 

d 

t 

th 


d 


dh 

n 

s 

1 

lab 

b 

P 

ph 

fh 

b 

f 

bh 

m 


v [w 


where the abbreviations are, asp, aspirated; den, dental; lab, labial; 
pre, pre-palatal; ret, retroflex; una, unaspirated; and vel, velar. 


When a syllable following another syllable and has no initial con¬ 
sonant (ci), 'zv' is added in place of the missing C\ to aid syllabic sepa¬ 
ration. The consonant v when occurred as C 2 is changed into zv. 


Note 1. Compare Thai alphabet in Definition 1 with the 5x5 character 
matrix of Sanskrit. 


k 

kh 

g 

g h 

n 

c 

ch 

i 

jh 

n 

t 

th 

d 

dh 

n 

t 

th 

d 

dh 

n 

P 

ph 

b 

bh 

m 


294 


jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Thai consonants are divided into three groups, namely middle, high 
and low consonants, according to whether the tonal sound of their phon¬ 
emes with long vowels is the first (neutral) or the fifth (high) tone. 


Definition 2. Middle consonants are b, c, d, d, k, p, zv, f, t. 


Definition 3. High consonants are ch,fh, h, kh, ph, s, s, s, th, th. 


Definition 4. Low consonants are b, bh, d, dh, d, dh,f g, g, h, j, jh, z. 


Definition 5. The rest of the consonants, namely l, l, m, n, n, ng, r, v, y, y 
are called sonorants. 


All sonorants have low tone which become high when combined 
with h to form Ih, mh, nh, ngh, vh, yh, yh. 


Definition 6. For any syllable let ci be the initial consonant, that is 
one which comes before the vowel, Ci the final consonant, that which 
comes after the same. Let v be the vowel of the syllable considered. 


In Thai alphabet, too, C 2 always occurs at the end, but the vowels 
may surround ci on the four sides, ie left, right, above and below, 

V3 

Vi Cl V 2 C 2 , 

Vi 


where H = v • The Thai symbols used for vowel are a, a, (nidi) 
han, i, i, ue, lie, u, u, e, (mdi) tdigu, ae, o, zv, y and v. Four short vowels, namely 
am, ai, ai and ao, inherently come with a final consonant, respectively 
m, y, y and v, so they never have a c 2 . Finally ciavfa) is the same as 
civ^cf) except when v\ is present. 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


295 



296 July 2005 Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


CO SJ- 

3 SL 

o gj 

» gL 

tt> '—K 

rt> K 


s o 

=■ » 
a- 35 

*3. 

O 

S* ^ 


£- 

O) 

n 

O 


H 

£- 

(D 

i-i 

rD 


H 

£- 

rD 


rD 

n 

<’ 

rD 


ft « 
W £ 
< «—h 
" »-4 

/ P) 


I (X) 

o 

' £ 
£ 
a 

£ 

rD 

rD 

a 

£* 

OQ 

£ 

O 

£ 

rD 

H 

tr 

rD 

«—h 

o 

£ 

rD 


£L § 

a 

CO ^ 

^ cr> 

3 = 
cr s 
o Sl 


CO 
CO | •* 

" £ 
rt 

sr 5 

Q) r_> 

" JL 
cn 




co co 
co co 
co co 
o o 


SPT Daiy Thai System 




long 



no c 2 



with c 2 



short 

long with 

short 


long 


short 


long 



c 2 (V 1 v 2 

V3 

vf) (vi 

v 2 v 3 

vf) (vi v 2 v 3 

Vi) ( v 1 

v 2 

V 3 Vi) 

a 

a 


a 



a 


han 


a 


i 

i 



i 


i 


i 



i 

ue 

Ue 



ue 


ue 


ue 



ue 

u 

u 




u 


u 


u 


u 

e 

e 

e 

a 


e 


e 

taigu 

e 



ae 

ae 

ae 

a 


ae 


ae 

taigu 

ae 



o 

o 

o 

a 


o 




o 



au 

au 

au e 

a a 



w 




w 


oe 

oe 

e 

w a 


e 


e 

i 

e 

w 


ia 

ia 

ia e 

y a 

i 

e 

y j 



e 

y 

i 

ua 

ua 

ua e 

w a 

ue 

e 

w ue 



e 

W 

ue 

oa 

oa 

oa 

v a 

han 


v han 




V 



coo 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science Vol. 2, No. 3 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


no final alphabet final alphabet 

/--—-"S 

live dead 

initial long short long short long short 

consonant vowel voivel vowel vowel vozvel vowel 

low 023 23 023 023 23 3 

middle 01234 123 01234 01234 123 13 

high 124 1 124 124 1 1 

Table 2 Tone table 

Lastly, the karania is represented by a dot placed over the unvow- 
eled consonant. The vowel thus removed is left trailing behind for 
identification purpose. Examples are bandha (bond) and bandlni (lin¬ 
eage) both of which are a common suffix found in Thai family names. 

Bibliography 

Kit Tiyapan. Thai grammar, poetry and dictionary. Kittix, Bangkok, 2003 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


jidy 2005 


297 



Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Thai Culture 


by Kit Tyabandha 


February 2004 


Introduction 


In Sanskrit sydma means black, and ksyah a house or abode. The 
latter also means end or termination. Whether these words are related 
to Siam one may never know. The word was first spelt this way by 
James Lancaster in 1592. Shan is the same as Siam. 

On the other hand, the name Siam could have had its origin from 
the name Ayudhya. Sri Ayudhya according to the rule of sandhi becomes 
Sryayudhya, which is pronounced as ' Siayudhya’. This according to the 
usual practice is reduced into one syllable in Chinese, 'Siam'. 

Figure's 1-6 show the boundaries of different periods of Thai 
kingdom. 


History 


Dvaravati kingdom lasted until the 11 th or the 12 th century. Nancao 
kingdom (650-1250) existed in what is nowadays Yunnan and Sichuan 
in China. Sukhodai (Sukhothai) kindom lasted from 1238 until 1376, 
Lanna from 1296 to 1558, Ayudhya from the 14 th century until 1765. 


298 


July 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 



Figure 1 Dvaravati 



Figure 2 Angkor 
Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


Jidy 2005 


299 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 



Figure 3 Lanna 



Figure 4 Sukhodai 


300 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 



Figure 6 Thailand 


Table 1 shows all the kings of the Cakri dynasty who reign over 
Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor Jidy 2005 301 


July 2005 Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


Oj 

o 

ho 


Q- 

Is 

r-t- rD 

> 8 

rD 

£L ^ 

^ H 

OCJ Hy- 
& & 


rD E- 
13 

H-r- 


King 

Life 

Reign 

English name 

Thai name 

o 

P- g* 

H 

Rama I 

1736 - 1809 

1782 - 1809 

Yod Fa 

Buddhayaudfacu'.alok 

i- 2- 

=3 

Rama II 

1767 - 1824 

1809 - 1824 

Loet La 

Buddhaloeslhanabhalay 

« cr 

3 03 

03 

H* • 

Rama III 

1787- 1851 

1824 - 1851 

Nang Klao 

Nangklaocaoywuhoa 

3 3 

t-{ 

ST 

M 

Rama IV 

1804 - 1868 

1851 - 1868 

Mongkut 

Caumklaocaoywuhoa 

__ «“h 

S gf 

00 

Rama V 

1853 - 1910 

1868 - 1910 

Chulalongkorn 

Culacaumklaocaoywuhoa 

o 03 

S S- 

c 

03 

Rama VI 

1880 - 1925 

1910 - 1925 

Vajiravudh 

Mongkutklaocaoywuhoa 

i-t 

n 2 

ctq 

fD 

Rama VII 

1893 - 1941 

1925 - 1935 

Prajadhipok 

Pokklaocaoywuhoa 

d.oo 

Rama VIII 

1925 -1946 

1935 - 1946 

Ananda Mahidol 

Anandamahidol 

03 03 

3 03 

CTO ^ 

3 S’ 

03 ££) 


Rama IX 

1927- 

1946 - 

Bhumibol Adulyadej 

Bhumiboladulyadej 


c 

rD 

3 

n 


CL rD 

_ *-K 

^ l “S 
Cu O 

.3 g 


03 

3 

00 


=r 


a cd 

P-3 

03 jjj 

2 cro 

3 ** 
3? O 
3 *0 

OT 03 

13 3 
O 3- 

m H 

2 gr 

ST 

a 

c 

3 


^r 

rt) 

13 

•I 

ro 

cn 

rD 

3 

r-h 

3- 

0 ) 

'< 

H 

3 “ 

03 

7T 

S’ 

CTO 

3 

o 

o' 

3 

00 

03 


O 03 


£- 

£ 


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science Vol. 2, No. 3 



Vol. 2, No. 3 Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 

Lanchang, now in Laos) had a different alphabet which has the resem¬ 
blances to old Burmese alphabet. 

Thai food 


Curry dishes: kaeng kdi, kaeng karhi, kaeng masamdn, kaeng nua, kaeng 
pladnk, kaeng sdm, banaeng kdi, tomkha kd. 

Soup: kaeng cued ( vunsen), kaeng Hang, khawtom (kung, mhu, pla], tom 
glong, tom yam, 

Egg dishes: khdi halo, khdi ciazv (khai fu), khdi ciaw mhusab, khdi daw, 
khdi gem, khdi look, khdi lukkhoei, khdi tom, khdi tiin, khdi yadsdi, 

Fried dishes: daudman (kung, pla), kdi phad medmamdang, khazv phad, 
(kiing, mhu, nua) phad ndmmanhaui, paupTa daud, phad mhikraub, phadbrik (kdi, 
mhu), phad dank kalhdm, phad phakbiing, phad priawvhan, pla daud samros. 

Others: bid kiing, hdumhok pla, hu chlam sdi pu, kdi (daud, yang), kdi hau 
baitoei, kampu (daud, niieng), khawman sdmtam, khdzvtang nhdtdng, khnompang 
nhdmhu, kungdaudkraub, kiingob vunsen, kiingphao, lab, ndmbrikkapi, pedtun, 
pla daud, pla kabongkhaw niieng manaw, pla ndmkhaw, pla priawvhan, plasamli 
daeddiaw, puca, salad nuasan, sdmtam, soup khdzvbod, yam (nua, plamhuek), 
yam pla kraub, yam thdablu, yam vunsen, 

Bibliography 


Kamjay Daunglhau. Lhak bhasa Daiy. Bangkok. 1952 (1997). 

K Tiyapan. Thai grammar, poetry and dictionary. Kittix. Bangkok. 2003. 

A Traveller's Guide to Thailand. Tourism Authority of Thailand. 1996. 

Appendix 

Sanskrit - Pmyln - Tiyapan romanisation of the Thai alphabet 


The Thai alphabet used here follow the SPT system introduced by 
Tiyapan (2003). There are 44 letters of which two are now obsolete. 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


303 



Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


namely kh and g. The remaining 42 characters based on Sanskrit are 
listed in Table 2. When w is the C 2 -form of v it always follows a vowel 
and never precedes it; when it is an an ang (anwang ) it is used only to 
separate two different vowels, and never elsewhere. The definition of 
C 2 is give below. 



k 

kh 

g 

g h 

n g 


c 

ch 

i 

z jh 

y 

d 

t 

th 

d 

dh 

n 

d 

t 

th 

d 

dh 

n 

b 

P 

ph 

fh b 

f bh 

m 


y r 1 v [w] s s s h 1 (w) h 

Table 2 Thai alphabet in SPT system (Tiyapan, 2003) 


The tone symbols based on Pmyin system of Chinese are 
ka ka ka ka ka. 

In Chinese the ordering is slightly different, that is 
ka ka ka ka. 

In Chinese the a vowel is always long, and there is nothing equiv¬ 
alent to the Thai samah (neutral) tone. 

Table 3 gives all Thai vowels both long and short, with and without 
a sakod (final) consonant. The tdn (main) and sakod consonants are here 
represented by respectively ci and C 2 . In SPT a syllable is always in the 
form of Cit;c 2 or c\v depending on whether or not C 2 exists. 


304 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


short long long with C 2 

a a 

i i 


ue 

ue 


u 

u 


e 

e 


ae 

ae 


o 

o 


au 

au 

au 

oe 

oe 


ia 

ia 

ia 

ua 

ua 

ua 

oa 

oa 

oa 


am 

ai 

ai 

ao 

Table 3 Thai vozvels in SPT system (Tiyapan, 2003) 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


305 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


English and American 

Kit Tyabandha, Ph.D. 


The Words section titled contains different words used in Amer¬ 
ican and English for the same meaning while the False Friend sec¬ 
tion contains the same words that carry different meanings in the two 
languages. In other words, the Words chapter is oriented around the 
meanings whereas the False Friend section around the words. 

False Friend 


bus means only the omnibus which operates a short-distant service, 
that is to say, within a city or a town (UK); but both bus and coach (US). 

Franchise means in politics the eligibility, right, or privilege to vote 
at public elections (UK); but a special right given by public authorities 
to a person or company (US). 


Words 


Accelerator is the gas pedal. The accumulator of a car is the genera¬ 
tor. Tne American football is simply the football. Autumn is known as 
Fall. 

Bonnet is a hood. The boot of a car is called trunk. 

Cancelled is written canceled. Carrousel is carousel. The UK prefers 
the suffixes which end with ~ce whereas the US those with ~se. For 
example, licence - license and practice - practise. Chilli over there is 
chili. Crenelated is crenellated. 

In a car, a dynamo is a battery. Defence is written as defense. 

The epaulette is called epaulet. 

Feisty is used only in American. It means excited or quarrelsome, 
and has its origin in feist, a dialectal word for fist Used also in NZ. 


306 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Fenders are bumpers. A flat is called an apartment, while the block of 
flats the apartment house and service flats are but an apartment hotel. No 
football, but soccer! Ancestors are forbears, or forebears. 

The gear lever is called the gear shift. Gobbledygook, a pompous 
nonsense, is written gobbledegook and means pretentious and obscure 
speech or writing. In the UK you conjugate 'to get' as get - got - got 
whereas in the US it is get - got - gotten. 

The halls at the entrance of a station are called concourses. 

The indicator light is called either the left-turn light or the right- 
turn light. The indicator switch, which is used for starting the engine, 
is called the turn signal. Instalment sometimes means installment. 

Labor is labour. Lencotomy is the same as lobotomy; both are the 
treatment which involve cutting into brain tissue to correct some mental 
disorders. A licence becomes a license. 

Marvellous is reduced to mere marvelous. The unit of length metre 
is meter. In other words, 'A meter is not a metre long’. A mould is called a 
mold. 

The number plate of a car is over there the license plate. 

Pavement becomes a sidewalk. Per cent is written percent. Petrol is 
called gasoline or gas. Petrol tank is the gas tank. The verb practise is 
practice. Pub is a saloon. But when it comes to the saloon-car the US 
call it a sedan. At the rear end of most saloon-car there is a boot or 
trunk. 

The rear light is the taillight. The registration number of a car be¬ 
comes the license number. The roller-coaster is in fact a sivitchback. 

A saloon car is in the US a sedan. The silencer of a car is called the 
muffler. Skilfid is skillful. Sparking plug is the spark plug, speciality 
becomes specialty. 

Tyre is a tire. 

The underground, aka tube, is called the subzvay. Then the question 
is, what is the subway in the US called? Utilize is utilise. 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


307 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Windscreen is a windshield. The wing of the car is fender. The wing 
mirror is the side-view mirror. 

As an addition to, and the generalisation of the above, we have 
the following. Regarding suffixes, the ~ence becomes -ense, for example 
defence - defense and offence - offense. The ~ise is always ~ize and vice 
versa but not necessarily so. 


308 


July 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


False Friend 

Kit Tyabandha, Ph.D. 

A, a 

aboard v on or into a ship, aircraft, etc. 

abroad, in or to a foreign country; being circulated widely, 
advice n suggestion. 

advise, v to suggest. 

ambassador n an officer representative of his country in a foreign land, 
a diplomat. He lives in an 
embassy, . 

ambulance n vehicle for carrying sick people to hospitals. 

ambulatory, adj capable of walking, 
angel n heavenly being, 
angle, n corner. 

annals n story of events yer by year; historical records, 
anal, n of the anus. 

avenge v take vengeance on someone for the wrong done to one's self. 

revenge, v take vengeance for someone else or for the wrong he 
received. 

awake awake - aivoke - awake (azvoke) 

B, b 

behalf n representation, 
behave, v conduct. 

benzene n colourless liquid obtained from petroleum and coal tar, used 
for making plastics. 

benzine, n colourless liquid mixture of hydrocarbons from 
petroleum, used in dry-cleaning. 

brake n device for reducing the speed; v slow down using a brake, 
break, v destroy into pieces; n interval. 

C, C 

capital n controlling city. 

the Capitol, n building where the US Congress meets in Washing¬ 
ton. 

clash v strike together. 

crash, v fall or strike sth. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


309 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


cloth n material or fabric woven from cotton, wool, silk, etc. 
clothe, vt put clothes on sb. 
cloths, n pi. of cloth. 
clothes, n dress, garments, 
compliment n praise, approval. 

complement, n contrastingly combine with sth to form a whole, 
confuse v bewilder; mix up. 

confute, v disprove; show error through argument, thus confusion 
and confutation. 

Confusius, n Chinese ethical teacher. 

Confucian, n follower of Confusius. adj of follower of Confusius. 
congenial adj similar in temperament; suited, 
congener, n one similar to another, 
congenital, adj present at birth. 

conjugate v change the verb, for example to suit the number and tense. 

conjugation, n. 

decline, v change the adjective, noun, or pronoun according to the 
cases. 

declension, n. 
conscious adj being aware. 

conscience, n awareness of what is right and what is wrong, 
conscientious, adj done with great attention and care, 
contend v struggle; argue, 
content, v satisfy. 

cuckold n one whose wife commits adultery. 

cuckoo, n migratory bird called after its cry. 

D, d 

dairy n place where milk products are made. 

diary, n book for recording things in each day. 
deduce v arrive at sth by reasoning; infer sth. 

deduct, v take away, 
depart n leave. 

deport, n legally force sb. 

department n division; area of activity or knowledge. 

deportment, n bearing; way of standing and walking, 
deportation, n deporting or being deported, 
deprave v make morally evil; corrupt, 
deprive, v take away from. 


310 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


desert n barren land. 

dessert, n sweet dish eaten at the end of a meal, 
desk n a piece of furniture with flat or sloping top and drawers, usual 
found at schools or in an office. 

table, n similar to desk but has no drawers, 
develop (the spelling 'devellop', however, does not exist), 
disapprove v to show a different opinion from somebody. But, 
disprove, is, v to show that he is wrong, 
disillusion This is a verb not a noun, despite the suffix it has. 
disillusionment, n. 


E, e 

equivalence n being the same. 

equivalent, adj same, equivalent or equivalence n sth that is the same. 
In other words, both are a noun when they have the same meaning, 
where otherwise one an adjective while the other a noun, 
etching n making relief patterns on a piece of metal using needle and 
acid, esp to be used for printing afterwards. 

ethonology, n science of the races of mankind and their interrela¬ 
tionship. 

ethic n system of morality. 

ethnic, n tribal; pagan, 
evermore adv forever; always. 

ever more, more and more, 
exploit n brave, adventurous deed. 

exploitation, n using sb/sth selfishly and unfairly. 

F, f 

fair adj beautiful. 

fare, n money charged for a journey, 
fiance n engaged person intending to marry. 

finance, n management of money, 
flagrant adj obviously wicked; scandalous, 
fragrant, adj sweet-smelling. 

fluorescence n the property of a substance whereby radiations are taken 
in and then sent out again in the form of light. 

inflorescence, n the arrangement of a plant's flowers on the stem; 
collective flower of a plant, 
forth adv onwards. 

fourth, pn next after third. 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


311 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


G, g 

gorilla n large African ape. 

guerrilla, guerilla, member of an armed band that makes sporadic 
warfare. 

gull n kinds of long-winged seabird. 

gullet, n throat and food passage between mouth and stomach. 

H, h 

holistic adj treating the whole of something or someone, not only a 
part. 

holy, ad] godly. 

hollow adj having a hole inside. 

holly, n evergreen shrub with glossy, prickled leaves and, in win¬ 
ter, red berries. 

holy, adj of God. 

humility n humble attitude of mind; modesty. 

humiliation, n making sb feel ashamed or disgraced; lower the 
self respect or dignity of. 


I,i 

imprudence n not being prudent, unwise, indiscreet. 

impudence, n rudeness 
incidence n extent of some happening. 

incident, n a happening, 
it's (contraction of) it is. 
its, belonging to it. 


judicial adj of the law. 

judicious, adj prudent. 


hi 


K, k 

kine n cows. 

kinetics, n theory of science relating motion of bodies with forces 
acting on them. 


L, 1 

lead n a chemical element. 

led, (past, of lead) guided, 
lighting n illumination. 


312 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


lightning, n flashes of light, accompanied by thunder, whose cause 
is the electrical current passed between clouds or between clouds and 
the ground. 

lose v have something taken away. 

loose, adj detached from its place. 

M, m 

manger n a trough in a stable for feeding cattle or horses. 

mangle, n a machine with cylindrical parts which are turned to 
squeeze wet clothes, 
meet v come together. 

meat, n animal flesh, 
mercy n kindness. 

mercenary, adj only in the interest of making money, 
minister n head of government department; clergyman. 

ministry, n government department; duty or service of a clergy¬ 
man. 

the ministry, n the ministers of a religion, 
mistaken adj and pres. part, of mistake. It is not a verb, 
monograph n detailed scholarly study of a subject, 
monologue, n talking alone; soliloquy. 

N, n 

notable adj worthy of note, 
notorious, adj ill-famed. 


O, O 

ounce n lynx, n d- lb. avoidupois. 

P/P 

particular adj specific. 

particulate, adj as separate particles, 
peace n absence of war. 

piece, n a part, 
peculation n embezzling, 
peculiar, adj strange. 

speculation, n buying and selling things with risk of loss and 
hope for profit through changes in their market value, 
pence is the plural of 

penny, , so it has no further plural form. Neither does penny have 
other forms for its plural. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


313 



Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


pendulum n swing weight hung by a rod. 

pudendum, n external sexual organ, 
plain n flat land. 

plane, n flat surface, 
policy n plan of action. 

polity, n form of government, 
politics n science and art of government, 
political, adj and 
politically, adv. but 
policy, n plan; practical wisdom, has 
politic, adj well-judged, prudent, and 
politicly, adv. 
presume v take for granted. 

assume, v take as true before there is a proof. As 'Assume every¬ 
thing; presume nothing', 
principal n main. 

principle, n basic, underlying truth, 
propose v formally suggest a marriage. 

proposal, n suggestion of a marriage, but 

proposition, n expressed opinion. 

proposition, v offensively suggest sexual intercourse. 

Q, q 

quit v give up. 

quits, adj being on even terms. 

R, r 

remembrance n remembering. 

resemblance, n likeness, 
rest v keep still; not moving. 

restive, adj restless; resisting control, 
road n broad track; route; way. 

street, n metalled road with houses on both sides. 

S, S 

sail n canvas sheet to catch the wind and drive a ship, 
sale, n selling. 

seam n line where two edges meet or are joined together, 
seem, v appear. 

series n (both sing and pi.) thing in succession; sequence; set; row. math 
items divided from each other by additions. 


314 


jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


sequence, items divided by commas, 
shear v cut the wool off a sheep by using shears. 

sheer, adj absolute, complete; perpendicular, without a slope, 
shed v fall; take off. 

shred, v tear into pieces, 
shared, past. part, having in common, 
show v past, showed, past. part, shown or showed, 
shew, is pres. 

spout n projecting tube on a vessel for pouring its contents out; pro¬ 
jecting pipe conveying water from a roof, 
spouse, n husband; wife, 
sprout, n develop shoots, buds, etc. 
starting n beginning. 

startling, n causing a surprise, 
starling, n a kind of common European bird, 
steps n places for feet when going from one level to another. 

stairs, n steps, usu inside a building, leading from one floor to 
another. 

subway n underground passage to cross under the street from one side 
to the other . In the US it means not this but the underground train. 

T,t 

testimonial n document declaring abilities. 

testimony, n statement made under oath, 
testimony cf testimonial. 
than conj (used to express inequality). 

then, adv at that time, 
their belonging to them. 

there, adv in, at, or to that place, 
they're, (contraction of) they are; they were, 
to prp in the direction of. 
too, adv also. 


U, u 

unman v weaken the courage, 
unmanly, adj not manly. 

unmanned, adj not manned, without a crew. 

V, V 

vend v to sell. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


315 



Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


vent, v give an outlet for. eg You vent, not vend, your anger on 
somebody. 


W, W 

waist n part of body circumscribing the body at the level of the navel, 
waste, n refuse. 

we're (contraction of) we are; we were, 
were, (past, of are). 

who's (contraction of) who is; who was; who has. 
whose, of whom. 


you're 

your. 


Xy 


316 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Plato 

Kit Tyabandha, Ph.D. 
Introduction 


I had been reading Plato's works for quite a while, in particular 
in the John Rylands University Library in Manchester during June and 
July 2006 when I read Crito until 27 June, Phaedo 28 June, Cratylus 1 
July, Theaetetus 4 July, Sophist 6 July, Politikos and Parmenides 14 July, 
Philebus 17 July and Symposium 20 July. After that I had to go away 
from Manchester, and so the reading was discontinued. 

I wrote in my note on 14 July 2006, 'my oo = 1 = 0 a rediscovery!' 
Then, 'my God a Superset a rediscovery!' I had discovered these on my 
own through my search and research. But my research must have been 
influenced much by Plato's works, so unknowingly I had arrived at my 
ideas through his influence. 

Thinking that my understanding was something new and worth 
telling people about I was serious enough to write and submitted pa¬ 
pers to philosophical journals, namely God the Superset to Journal of 
Theological Studies on 2 November 2005, then to Philosophy Journal 
on 8 December 2005. And then, seeing nobody accepted articles on my 
pet little discovery, I submitted it again to The Nation newspaper in 
Bangkok. Still until now no one has shown an interest to publish my 
works on the subject. 

The realisation through reading Plato that everything was a redis¬ 
covery came as a relieve. I then realised that my articles would not 
have been necessary, and definitely was no longer needed. Therefore 
I left everything behind and began a series of pilgrimages. Of course 
there were other reasons for my leaving Manchester, but looking back 
now this seems to have been a probable cause. 

From 2 nd to 9 th August 2006 I went around by coach on a British 
Explorer ticket. Then I went to the Outer Hebrides, namely at Caloway 
and Garenin. I was back from the island on 11 th August and stayed 
at Rhenigidale. I got a lift to Gairloch where I stayed on 12 th August, 
and on 13 th August the same lift landed me in Lake District. I explored 
Cumbria until 19 August 2006. Between 22 nd August and 3 rd September 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


317 



Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


2006 I walked the Pennine Way, then from 5 th until 8 th September the 
Hadrian's Wall. During 11-14 September I helped with some works 
at Scargill House. From 17 th until 26 th September I walked the Offa's 
Dyke Path. Thereafter for one month my pilgrimage led me to Oxford, 
Cambridge, London and the area around them, and to the Stonehenge. 

Kit Tyabandha 
The UK and Siam 


318 


jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


SPT Greek 

Encyclopaedia 

Britannica 

English 

Euthyphrwn 

Euthyphron 

Euthyphro 

Apologia Swkratous 

Apologia Sokratous 

Apology 

Kritivn 

Criton 

Crito 

Phaidwn 

Phaedon 

Phaedo 

Kratidos 

Cratylos 

Cratylus 

Theaitytos 

Theaetetos 

Theaetetus 

Sophistys 

Sophistes 

Sophist 

Politikos 

Politikos 

Statesman 

Parmenidys 

Parmenides 


Philybos 

Philebos 

Philebus 

Sumposion 

Symposion 

Symposium 

Phaidros 

Phaedros 

Phaedrus 


Alkibiades 

Alcibiades 


Hipparchos 

Hipparchus 


Erastai 

Charmides 

Laches 

Lysis 

Lovers 


Euthydemos 

Protagoras 

Gorgias 

Euthydemus 


Men on 

Meno 


Hippias Meizon 

Hippias Major 


Hippias Elatton 

Ion 

Hippias Minor 


Menexenos 

Menexenus 


Politeia 

Republic 


Timaeos 

Critias 

Timeaus 


Nomoi 

Epinomis 

Laws 


Table 1 list of Plato's works 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


319 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Euthyphrwn 


Problem 1 . What is holiness, what unholiness? 


Problem 2. By which things are all holy acts holy? 


Problem 3. Is everything that is holy right, everything right holy? 


Plato leads us through discussions by which a conclusion is arrived 
that holiness and things that all gods love are different. We also find 
that reverence implies fear, but not the other way round, that is fear 
does not necessarily imply reverence. In other words reverence is a 
subset of fear. 

Similarly odd number implies number, but not number odd num¬ 
ber, since odd number is a subset of number. 


320 


jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Apologia 

Wisdom is not saying you know when you know not. 

When a leader is ousted out no matter how popular he might once 
be it is because the sentiment risen against him from the mass not by 
the doing of any particular person, though the latter may have done 
it. Likewise in an assassination the assassin has far less to do with the 
cause than with the brutal action conducted. 

Socrates knew how it was not his archenemy but the people that 
were rising against him. 

..., that great hatred has arisen against me and in the minds of 
many persons. And this it is which will cause my condemnation, 
if it is to cause it, not Myletus or Anytus, but the prejudice and 
dislike of the many. 


Injuring a man unjustly you injure yourself. Soul is more important 
than money. If you fight for the right and want to preserve your life 
for a while, then be a private citizen not a public man. 

More than answers, the question is more important. Until you 
know what holiness is, do not prosecute anyone. On the other hand, 
you can never know what holiness is. 

Socrates was speaking to a Roman soldier, and he said to him thus, 
'You follow men's commands, why do you not follow God's regardless 
of fear and danger?' 

'I do not do it for money,' he said, 'poverty is my witness.' 

'I am convinced I have intentionally done no one wrongs, but I can 
not make you convinced.' 

No one know death. Yet we fear death, what we do not know. Do 
not presume to know what you do not. Do not fear death. 

He was being prosecuted, and said to his friend, 'I go to die, and 
you to live; but which of us goes to the better lot, is known to none but 
God.' 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


321 



Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Crito 


I think Plato thinks that the state is god, and that we belong in it. 

Similar to what Shakespeare said, Plato also tells us that sometimes 
we need to change our mind on certain things in order to find ourselves. 
Shakespeare put it this way in Love's Labour’s Lost (Act 4, Scene 3), 

Let us once lose our oaths to find ourselves. 

Or else we lose ourselves to keep our oaths. 

It is better to die virtuous than to live in shame. 

Then, Crito, let it be, and let us act in this way, since it is in this 
way that God leads us. 


322 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Phaedo 


Philosophy is the study about death, and dying. 


Theorem 1 . Soul exists. 


Proof.: Things are generated from their opposites. Therefore the living 
is generated from the dead. Therefore soul exists. □ 

Learning is recollection. But instincts exist. Hence souls exist. 

Plato argued that the sense of equality and absolutes is acquired 
before birth. Souls, through pleasures are captured by the body and 
part with the communion with the divine, pure and absolute. We 
should behold that which is true and divine and not a matter of opin¬ 
ion. He asked whether we are inferior to swans who sing best when 
they are about to die. 

Souls are like men, bodies clothes. Both wear out several of the 
other after a while. 

One should argue after the truth, not to protect one's opinions. 

Knowledge is a recollection. 

Is soul a kind of harmony? Can we make an analogy lyre-harmony 
and body-soul? Harmony comes after a lyre, and gone before it. Is it 
true likewise that the soul arrives after the body and departs before it? 
Since souls may oppose bodies, therefore such analogy is not possible. 
Also, harmony may have degrees, that is there can be more or less 
of it whereas souls are equal. The oneness of souls implies perpetual 
harmony. 

The trouble with literal argument is that the language, the word¬ 
ings are sometimes tricky. Perhaps a way out of this is to use mathemat¬ 
ics, with its strict definitions, and to use physics, with its quantitative 
style of study. 

People usually worry themselves with things instead of with the 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


323 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 
power which drives them. 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


There exist absolutes, things are beautiful because of beauty they 
contain. 

All things have their opposites. Nothing admits its opposite. Soul 
causes life, as number one address. So the opposite of soul is death 
Therefore soul does not admit death, that is to say, the soul is immortal. 

Questions still remain after Plato. For instance, is it a mere matter 
of personification, of souls shunning those souls who had done wrong? 
Since all souls are equal and never evil, does death free them from the 
world and from earthly guilts? 

Water encompasses fish. The earth encompasses water. The uni¬ 
verse encompasses the earth. Then the soul encompasses the universe. 
The soul live much longer than the earth, as long as the universe. Then 
is there a higher soul yet encompassing it? And then God encompasses 
everything. 

I think this has an influence on C. S. Lewis's Trilogy, namely The 
Cosmic Trilogy, comprising Out of the Silent Planet (1938), Perelandra (1943) 
and That Hideous Strength (1938). 

When it comes to morals and the segregation of souls Plato switch¬ 
es suddenly to myths, for example that about Tartarus and Achenon, 
even though he also said that he did not mean it literally. I find such 
idea of merits and rewards still pagan. 

And of these, all who have duly purified themselves by philos¬ 
ophy live henceforth altogether without bodies and pass to still 
more beautiful abodes which it is not easy to describe, nor have 
we now time enough. 


'Is heaven the universe?', I asked myself. If so, limbo must be the 
diffusion time to join it. 

We may not live in vacuum of space but that is where our soul 
belong. Therefore we fear God, but our souls rejoice in Him. The 
reunion of the goods and the bads means a punishment for the latter 
but a reward for the former. 

In his story Phaedo represents all our worldly life. 


324 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


If you take care of yourselves you will serve me and mine and 
yourselves, whatever you do, ... 

Compare this with what Buddha said {cf Bnddhapada 166). 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


325 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Cratylus 


Names are what the gods call things, for example 'gene' and so on. 
There is a difference between true names and word names. Definitions 
are true names. 

The question Plato presents here is an extremely interesting one, 
even though some of the investigations are rather naive. 

Plato talks about some words in Greek. There is a word 'daymon- 
es', which means 'wise and knowing'. There is another word 'daimon- 
es', which means 'spirits'. The word 'yrws' means 'hero' In its Attic 
form it is 'heros', and in Ionic 'HRWS'. The word 'erws' means 'love'. 
Its Ionic form is 'ERWS'. Definition is association, association of words. 
Thus it is that through the facade of etymology Plato discusses serious 
things. 

According to Plato there are words which are considered elemen¬ 
tal, which are the origin of all names. These words are also imitation, 
but of neither shape, sound, nor colour. One could present these el¬ 
emental words by letters, and then combine them into other words. 
What we have is then a construction of a systematic language. 

Plato said that 'f', 'ps' and 's' represent violent movements. Fur¬ 
ther 'd' means binding, 't' rest, T gliding movement, 'n' internal, 'a' 
greatness, 'y' length, and 'o' round. The idea being looked at here is 
now a well developed information coding in coding theory. We have 
here, however, informing names. 

Lawgivers make definitions. Pictures can be either like or unlike, 
in other words either correct or wrong. Similarly names can be either 
seeming or unseeming, that is either true or false. Since both names 
and laws are words, therefore some lawgivers are good and others bad. 

Words are, however, but images, which are not to be exactly the 
same as the things they themselves represent. Plato presents the fol¬ 
lowing question. 

... the image must not by any means reproduce all the qualities 
of that which it imitates, if it is to be an image? 


326 


jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


A name must be different from the thing, or else they would be 
duplicates of thing not a thing and its name. Thus there are different 
degrees of correctness of words, and hence of clauses and sentences. 
Also there are primary names and composite names. 

Correctness and trueness are mere convention. Custom and con¬ 
ventions play a role in correctness of names. 

Socrates talks about amathta (ignorance), and contrasts it with ton 
ama thewi iontos poreta (the progress of one who goes with God). 

How is reality to be learnt and discovered? Since all things are 
changing, therefore it is better to learn from the actual things in terms 
of their absolute qualities than to learn from their names. 

The following sounds uncannily like a precursor to Heisenberg's 
uncertainty principle in Quantum Mechanics. 

Pws oun an eiy ti ekeino 6 mydepote wsautws echei? 


How, then, can that which is never in the same state be anything? 


Ama gar an epiontos tou gnwsomenou alio kai alloion gignoito 
wste ouk an gnwstheiy eti opoion ge ti estin y pws echon; gnwsis 
de dypou oudemia gignwskei 6 gignwskei mydamws echon. 

For at the moment when he who seeks to know it approaches, 
it becomes something else and different, so that its nature and 
state can no longer be known; and surely there is no knowledge 
which knows that which is in no state? 


'Geometry or any other form of philosophy?' Geometry is mathe¬ 
matics is philosophy, therefore to Plato mathematics is philosophy. 

Socrates is the questioning in us! It is said that he did not exist 
as a person as such. May be this is true, and he could represent the 
critical thinking in us. As a testimony to this, those leaving him earlier 
than they should found bad companies, and so on. He makes minds 
pregnant in labour and, 'the delivery is due to the god and me.' 

Socrates complained, 'they have considered impostures and images 
of more importance than the truth.' 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


327 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


'You could not rightly ascribe any quality whatsoever to anything' 
Compare this with Jesus's 'judge not!', and Buddha's 'no ditthi!' 

'Nothing ever is, but is always learning.' This is search and re¬ 
search, as Buddha had taught in his Kalamasutra and in his saying 
against ditthi (opinion). 'Esti men gar oudepot' ouden, aei de gignetai.' 

Looking at Plato's argument, then Swkratys (Socrates) is the ques¬ 
tionings and critical thinking. Eukleidys, Terpsiwn, Theodwros and 
Theaitytos are all within him. Compare this with the Me in Christ in 
God. In the point of view of Plato perhaps it is the Me in Socrates in 
God. But since the questioning of an inquisitive mind can never ex¬ 
ceed the boundary of knowledge, that is to say, reality and universe, 
whereas God could, we could combine these two statements to make 
the Me in Socrates in Christ in God. Here the Me is limited to within 
the Soul, Socrates is bounded by an initiative limit, Christ is bounded 
by the boundary of knowledge, namely the universe and the limit of 
our comprehension, and God is the Superset. 

'Nothing is which appears.' Compare this with Shakespeare's 
'nothing is but what is not.' We have no proof whether this is wakeful¬ 
ness or a dream. 

There are only unions of things, no definite being or becoming. 

'None of the arguments comes from me, but always from him who 
is talking with me.' The questions belong to humanity, the solutions to 
us. 


Is knowledge the same as perception? Our Socrates led us on 
our way to answer this question. We remember even when we no 
longer see the things, therefore knowledge and perception are different. 
Furthermore, if perception and knowledge are the same, then we are 
led to all sorts of contradiction, for example if we shut one eye then 
we must be at the same time both knowing and not knowing. But our 
memory of having felt something is not the same as the time when we 
felt it. Therefore it is possible to both know and not know at the same 
time. 

The Socrates in us should be impersonal. The solutions we arrive 
at are our brainchild. 

'But he is dead, and we are abusing the orphan.' The father is 
328 Jidy 2005 Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


dead, leaving an orphan defenceless. The guardians refuse to help. We 
refuters must do so in the name of justice. (Compare this to Shake¬ 
speare's Sonnets ) 

What is the difference between a philosopher and a lawyer? A 
philosopher is free and at leisure whereas a lawyer is in a hurry. 

God is in no wise and in no manner unrighteous, but utterly and 
perfectly righteous. 


'Two patterns, my friend, are set up in the world, the divine which 
is most blessed, and the godless, which is most wretched.' 

Trueness may not vary from person to person, else if A says, 'I am 
true and you are true' while B says, 'I am true but you are false', then 
A would be false. 

The ancient says, 'the origin of all things is Ocenus and Tethys, 
flowing streams, and that nothing is at rest'. Melissus and Parmenides 
says, 'everything is one and stationary within itself.' ‘Sthion akinyton 
telethein zvi pant' dnom' einai', 'so that it is motionless, the name of which 
is the All.' 

The above argument shows juxtaposition between 'the whole' and 
'flowing'. Both seem to be correct, that is flowing within the whole. In 
other words, the concept of the whole is correct so long as we keep in 
mind that it is not static but dynamic. 

There are two kinds of motion, that is alteration and motion in 
space. Perception and the percipient are active, whereas the perceived 
and quality are passive. Is movement when the passive becomes per¬ 
cipient, but not perceptive, and the active becomes, not a quality, but 
endowed with a quality? 

Are all things in flux? If so and if perception is knowledge, then 
knowledge is not-knowledge. 

What is opinion, what is false opinion? ‘Auto detxei ', 'the event 
itself will show.' Opinion comes with persuasion, whereas knowledge 
comes with teaching. True opinions are no knowledge. Take judges as 
an example, they may be persuaded without being taught. 

Knowledge is true opinion together with reason. Primal elements 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


329 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


are perception, so they are truth but no knowledge. Compound things 
could be either true opinion or knowledge, so they are both truth and 
knowledge. 

The whole is different from all, for we know names but not the 
letters. 

This is the question of existence, the same question of 'to be or 
not to be.' We may know what a code stands for, but do we really 
understand each letter of the alphabet used to make up the words of 
the code? We know things, but not the Creator. In other words, we 
knot God, but not all things He creates. 

Is 'all' in the singular the same as 'all' in the plural? ‘Td de gepdnta 
mery to pan einai zvmologytai, etper kai o pas arithmds td pan estai', 'but we are 
agreed that the all must be all the parts if all the number is to be the 
all.' 'To dlon dr' ouk estin ek menvn, pan gar an eiy td pdnta dn mery', 'then 
the whole does not consist of parts for if it consisted of all the parts it 
would be the all.' 

'Knowledge is the ability to tell some characteristic by which the 
object in question differs from all others.' 


330 


July 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Sophist 


A part of Art is acquisitive. A part of acquisitive art is coercive. A 
part of coercive art is called hunting. 

Things can be for the body or for the soul. Examples of those for 
the soul are arts. 

Plato looks at the definitions of Sophists, statesmen and philoso¬ 
phers. 

All badness comes from stupidity (thinking one knows when one 
does not). Thus the remedy is education, and the heart of education 
cross-questioning. 

'Not-being' is absurd and should exist in neither singular or plural. 

That not-being reduces him who would refute it to such difficul¬ 
ties that when he attempts to refute it he is forced to contradict 
himself. 


'That which is not'! 'Defeated in the refutation of not-being.' 

Yet Plato's not-being is but an abstraction of the physical idea of 
number. One could say it is a grammatical number. As mathematics it 
belongs to a language, not the physical world. So long as Euclid's point 
with no dimensions, line with one and only one dimension, and plane 
with exactly two dimensions exist, so could our not-being. 

Thus Sophists, who are image-makers, are difficult to refute. 

Who say that images are not-being? Images are created beings, 
that is things. 

Not-being is an idea similar but more profound than, for instance, 
no one. In the case of the latter one could imagine someone is there, and 
then take that someone out. The space remaining there is therefore that 
no one. In other words it is a complementary self. Similar nothing is no 
not-being but a not-a-thing. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


331 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Parmenides 

Stranger: In defending myself I shall have to test the theory of 
my father Parmenides, and contend forcibly that after a fashion 
not-being is and on the other hand in a sense being is not. 


'Ou gar my pote touto damyi, physin, einai my eonta; alia su 
tysd' aph' odou dizymenos eirge noyma', 'never let this thought pre¬ 
vail, saith he, that not-being is; but keep your mind from this way of 
investigation.' 

Could not-being be on the same par with false words, false opinion, 
image, likeness, imitation and appearance? Trying to disprove one's 
own theory, say the both being and not-being are. But the both are 
being, and no not-being at all. 

In addition to what Plato said, could not-being be considered as 
being neither thing nor space, nor no-space, nor no-non-space? But then 
again the word 'being' we used preceding the 'neither' has betrayed us 
somewhat. Shakespeare would have said, 'and nothing is but what 
is not.' What is a thing but atoms plus space. What is an atom but 
nucleids plus space. What is nucleids but quarks plus space, and so on. 

Are we merely names of the same thing? (that is being?) The 
names are merely names of names. 

'Xenos Eleatys: Kai to en ge, ends 6, noma on kai ton onomatos au td en on’, 
'An Elean Stranger: And the one will turn out to be the name of one and 
also the one of the name.' One is both the name of unity and also the 
unity of which the word 'one' is the name. 

One implies parts, yet one must be absolutely without parts. Being 
identified by unity, the all will be more than one, else if absolute whole 
exists, the being lacks something of being. Then the being is not-being, 
since it is deprived of being. If the whole does not exist at all, the being 
could not have ever come into existence. 

Adding to what Plato has said, nothing less than the All is any¬ 
thing. If we look at an aggregate of particles, ultimately no boundaries 
are definable. God is a distributed system and we are also distributed 
systems. Is the body fluid in us us, fluids in our cells us? What all 


332 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 

things are are but parts of All, with no meaningful boundaries defin¬ 
able. 


Nothing apart from the whole can have quantity. 

Plato discussed movement as against rest. In nowadays context we 
have Big Bang versus a stationary universe. 

Discussing Sophist versus philosopher. Sophist is like darkness for 
they hardly see, whereas philosopher the brilliant light of the divine, 
'for the eyes of the soul of the multitude are not strong enough to 
endure the sight of the divine.' Sophists look at not-being whereas 
philosophers at being. Furthermore, Sophists use practical and empiri¬ 
cal methods whereas philosophers use ideas in their study. 

In relation to each of the classes, being is many, and not-being is 
infinite in number. 


The prefix 'not-' indicates something different, not opposite. 

The attempt to separate everything from everything else is not 
only not in good taste but also shows that a man is utterly un¬ 
cultivated and unphilosophical. 


God is the Superset. 

The complete separation of each thing from all is the utterly 
final obliteration of all discourse. For our power of discourse 
is derived from the interweaving of the classes or ideas with one 
another. 


The negative has only a relative existence and is not the opposite 
of the positive, but only differ from it. Not-being is one of the classes 
of being, permeating all being. 

‘Phainetai gar oun problymdtivn gemein ', 'for he seems to have no end 
of defences.' 

Let us look at the interrelationship between speech, opinion and 
image-making. Speech could be affirmative or negative, opinion true¬ 
ness or falsehood, and image-making likeness or fantastic. A Sophist is 
the imitator of a philosopher. Long speeches mark a statesman. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


333 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Politikos 


Classes are parts. A statesman is a herder of harmless animal. 
Plato compares man with pig. 

The Creator created and then left the universe alone. Entropy 
increases, and then the Pilot takes over. 

But who is the Pilot but the Creator himself. 

The universe runs forwards until it reaches an ultimate point from 
where it then reverses the direction. Then everything runs backwards, 
for example birth from the earth, and so on, until an absolute annihila¬ 
tion. 


The art of weaving should include that of making weaving tools. 
The division becomes a mess if not impossible. Thus we could divide 
arts into contingent part, which provides tools, and actual part, which 
makes the thing. 

The standard of the mean exists if and only if the art concerned 
exists. Greater and less are relative to one another and to the standard 
of the mean. 

And, moreover, anyone who finds fault with the length of dis¬ 
courses in our discussions, or objects to roundabout methods, 
must not merely find fault with the speeches for their length and 
then pass them quickly and hastily by, but he must also show that 
there is ground for the belief that if they had been briefer they 
would have made their hearers better dialecticians and quicker 
to discover through reason the truth of realities. 


The above passage may remind one of the case of the proof of the 
four-colour theorem. 

Is everything that exists the instrument of something or another? 
Then in addition to Plato's discourse, is everything that exists the in¬ 
strument of everything? The latter is added because it explains the idea 
of shared responsibility. All guilts committed by a person are shared 
by humanity as a whole. 


334 


jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 


Do all forms of government try to imitate a rule by a single ruler? 
Monarchy can be royalty or tyranny It is the extreme case which could 
be best or worst. The rule of the few can be aristocracy or oligarchy. 
This is a moderate form of government. The rule of the many, that is 
democracy, can be lawful or lawless, as in mob rule. This is a weak 
form of government. It is worst in orderly time, best in chaotic one. 

Both self-restraint and courage are subsets of virtue. At times they 
intersect each other. The weaving together of restraint and courage 
makes a statesman. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


335 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Parmenidys 


'For you in your poems, say that the all is one?' Is existence one 
or many? 

... and when it was written some one stole it, so that I could not 
even consider whether it should be published or not. 


All things are one and many, but the one is not the many nor the 
many the one, that is to say, absolute one and many. In addition to 
Plato, infinity and one and zero are equivalent (absolute one and zero), 
and that is God. In other words, infinite field and trivial fields are the 
same. 

An idea is one and the same, but is in many places at once, that 
is to say, it is in all its participants at the same time. This is like 
spreading a sail over many persons and say it was one, and all of it 
was over many. Only a part of an umbrella covers each thing. Thus a 
part is not the whole. 

The one cannot be the many. Therefore it can have not parts. It 
also can have no beginning or end. That is to say, it is unlimited. 

Is each idea one and distinct from concrete things? Ideas are 
thought, thought of something. That something is again an idea. Then 
is everything an idea? 

Kephalos: Antiphon said that Pythodorus told him that when Zeno 
said this he himself and Antiothenes and the rest begged Par¬ 
menides to show his meaning by an example and not to refuse. 


The one is unlimited and not at all. It cannot be in anything, not 
even in itself. It cannot surround anything. It cannot move in space. 
Neither can it move in time. It can be in any time. 

Adding to Plato, One is no singular, no plural, nothing. If we 
accept that God is Superset, then all these issues are solved, and so 
could we prove the One. 


Next we look at being and unity. All parts are composed of these 
336 Jidy 2005 Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 

two. Then the One, that is the Whole, comprises both being and unity. 
Hence the One must be infinite. 

Additionally the One is the infinite of infinities. Being is a subset 
of other, that is the complement of one. So being differs from one by 
virtue of that other. 

Now what about one and being one? 

It seems there can be both without twoness, that is interspersed, 
undefinable boundary. Compare this with the Holy Spirit. 

If one exists, then number exists. To see this we look at one and 
other, which make up a pair, that is to say, two. Next we could look at 
one, other and pair, and have then three. This leads us to all numbers. 

If number exists, they must be infinite. 

Thus Plato succeeded in reasoning how the existence of one implies 
the existence of infinite! 

Existence, then, is distributed over all things, which are many, 
and is not wanting in any existing thing from the greatest to the 
smallest? 


Yes, 'for how can existence be wanting in any existing thing?' 

It is split up into the smallest and greatest and all kinds of exis¬ 
tence; nothing else is so much divided, and in short the parts of 
existence are infinite. 


'Its parts are the most numerous of all.' 

Then unity is an attribute of every part of existence and is not 
wanting to a smaller or larger or any other part. 


Plato looks at one and existence. One is as many as its parts, which 
is infinite, that is as many parts as existence's. 

All the parts are in the whole, the whole not in any part. 

For if it is in all, it must be in one, for if it were wanting in any 
one it could no longer be in all; for if this one is one of all, and 
the whole is not in this one, how can it still be in all? 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


337 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


This is a solution to the Old Testament before Jesus gave us his. 
Also, one wonders whether the Greeks worked much with real num¬ 
bers. Since they knew Pi and worked with geometry and Pythagoras, 
they must have known real numbers. But Plato's arguments seem to 
be based solely on integers. Perhaps his purpose is to make it simpler, 
and clearer to clarify things. Modern analysis seems to be influenced 
much by Plato's method. 

The one was, is and will be. 

In other words. Superset covers all time. 

Then the part is a part, not of the many nor of all, but of a single 
form and a single concept which, we call a whole, a perfect unity 
created out of all. 


The one is different from the other, and vice versa. They are in the 
same state, that is like each other. We have now one, other, whole and 
all. 

Therefore if one exists the one is all things and nothing at all in 
relation both to itself and to all others. 


If one does not exist, then non-existent needs existence to continue 
being non-existent. The one needs existence to attain non-existence. 
That is the one has existence. 

One can see therefore that the one both is and is not. Compare this 
with Shakespeare's 'to be or not to be.' 

The non-existent one partakes no such attributes as greatness or 
smallness, likeness or difference, and so on. 

This seems like trying to find whether God is the one or the non¬ 
existent one (not whether God exists or not, because the non-existent 
exists!) The non-existent one is different, but not to the one since that 
does not exist, then to each other lest it be others of nothing. They are 
fractions mutually different (not each one's, since one does not exist.) 
They appear one from a distance, at closer inspection infinite in number. 

Is this the origin of epsilon and calculus? 

'If the one is not, nothing is.' 


338 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Whether the one is or is not, the one and the others in relation 
to themselves and to each other all in every way are and are not 
and appear and do not appear. 


'If the others exist and the one does not, the others will be neither 
one nor many (for then, if none of them is one they are nothing at all.)' 

My discovery that oo = 1 = 0 was a rediscovery And so was my 
pet definition of God as being the Superset. It can be disheartening 
when you read. 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


339 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Philebus 


Knowledge is good, but there are many forms of it, some of which 
oppose others. 

Man is one, ox is one, the beauty is one, the good is one. 

Przvton men ei tinas dei toiautas einai monadas upolambanein alythws ousas; 
eita pzvs au tautas, mian ekdstyn ousan aei tyn autyn kai myte genesin myte 
olethron prosdechomenyn, omzvs einai bebaiotata mian tautyn; metd de tout' 
en tois gignomenois au kai apeirois eite diespasmenyn kai polla gegonuian 
theteon, eith' olyn autyn autys chwris, d dy pdntzvn adunatzbtaton phainoit' 
an, tautdn, kai en ama en eni te kai pollois gignesthai. 

The first question is whether we should believe that such uni¬ 
ties really exist; the second, how these unities, each of which is 
one, always the same, and admitting neither generation or de¬ 
struction, can nevertheless be permanently this one unity; and 
the third, how in the infinite number of things which come into 
being this unity, whether we are to assume that it is dispersed 
and has become many, or that it is entirely separated from itself 
- which would seem to be the most impossible notion of all - 
being the same and one, is to be at the same time in one and in 
many. 

And we must not apply the idea of infinite to plurality until 
we have a view of its whole number between infinity and one; 
then, and not before, we may let each unit of everything pass on 
unhindered into infinity; 


'Ta de mesa autous ekpheugei, ois diakechwristai to te dialecticws 
pallin cat to episticws ymas poieisthai pros allylous tous logous', 'they 
disregard all that lies between the dialectic and the disputatious meth¬ 
ods of discussion.' 

Sound is one, and yet infinite in number, as in music and language. 
The origin of grammar was due to Theuth, perhaps an Egyptian, who 
divided sound in language into three group, namely vowel, semi-vowel 
and mutes. Then he divided each of these into primary units. 

God creates the infinite, the finite, mixture of these, and the cause 
for this mixture. 


340 


jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 


Enjoyment or pleasure needs memory (past), opinion (present) and 
calculation (future). Desires are from the soul, the memory of fullness 
while the body is empty Soul writes and paints into memory There are 
true and false opinions. There are true and false pleasure. (Compare 
this with Buddha's 'no ditthi') 

Laughing is a pleasure. Envy is a pain. But laughing at a friend's 
mistake shows envy, thus it is both pleasure and pain, that is an unpure 
pleasure. 

To have knowledge is a pleasure. To lost the memory of knowledge 
is no pain. Therefore having knowledge is a pleasure without pain, that 
is pure pleasure. 

Things can be either generation or good. Pleasure, for instance is 
no good, therefore it is a generation. 

Arts can be either exact or approximate. Building, for example, is 
exact whereas music is approximate, that is you use your guess and 
experience. Arithmetic is a most exact art. It has two types, that of the 
people and that of philosopher. 

Are there two kinds of knowledge, that is to say, pure and impure? 
If we contemplate on this question, knowledge of those things which 
are transitory is less pure, that is impure. On the other hand knowledge 
of things which neither come into being nor pass away is considered 
pure. 

Plato discusses mind, pleasure and truth, and put things into five 
groups, namely first, measure, moderation and fitness, second, pro¬ 
portion, beauty, perfection and sufficiency, third, mind and wisdom, 
fourth, science, arts, true opinions (that is those of the soul), and fifth, 
pure pleasure. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


341 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Sumposion 

Ca lws g', ephy, poiwn su; alia pou estin outos? 


'Very good of you to come/ he said, 'but where is the man?' (It's 
good of you to come, Agathon, but where is Socrates? ~ Aristodemus) 

'My own is but meagre, as disputable as a dream.' Socrates is the 
systematic questioning. 

They were at a party last night. Our Socrates stays not with us 
when we revel. 

Love is of the most venerable standing. The power of love, 'only 
such as are in love will consent to die for others.' One could die for 
love, or sleep on doorsteps. 

Two kinds of love are heavenly love and popular love. For trial 
of lovers, a quick capitulation is a disgrace. Also lovers are disgraced 
if surrender from poll, public preferment, or cowering from the en¬ 
durance of ill-treatment. Compare this discussion of Plato with Shake¬ 
speare's Sonnets, which are about the love of writers. For the love of 
teachers Plato gives the following. 

And he will be deemed a good practitioner who is expert in 
producing Love, where it ought to flourish but, exists not, and in 
removing it from where it should not be. 


'The one at variance with itself is drawn together, like harmony of 
bow or lyre.' ~ Fiera Cleitus 

The universe is held together by the strain of opposite forces. 

All means of communion between gods and men, are only con¬ 
cerned with either the preservation or the cure of Love. 


Love conceived as a single whole exerts a complete power both 
here on earth and in heaven above. Love for money, even when it 
turned out there was no money from our love, is no less disgrace. Love 
for spiritual improvement of the beloved, even when it is betrayed, is 
no less honourable. 


342 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Poetry is the art of composing, which in turn is anything passing 
from not being into being. All craftsmen are poets. 

Love is all that desire of good things and of being happy. Every 
man should honour Love. 

'One learnt leech is worth the multitude.' ~ Homer ~ 

A man sensible and resolute, 'he was far more proof against money 
on every side than Ajax against a spear.' 

Socrates always shows bravery in battles, uses one word for the 
same thing, and gives only sensible speeches. 

A fully skilled tragedian could be a comedian as well. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


Jidy 2005 


343 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Phaedrus 


Passion obscures judgement. Lover thinks grievous things that 
cause no pain to others, and praises what ought not to give pleasure. 

'The good things are not the same as the pleasant, nor the bad as 
the painful.' 

The discourse was not only wonderful but miraculous. That was 
forcing Socrates to make a discourse by threatening to read no more. 

Here Plato starts from a definition of love and refer to it constantly 
throughout. 

He ought never to have accepted a lover who was necessarily 
without reason, but rather a reasonable non-lover; for otherwise 
he would have to surrender himself to one who was faithless, ir¬ 
ritable, jealous, and disagreeable, harmful to his property, harm¬ 
ful to his physical condition, and most harmful by far to the 
cultivation of his soul, than which there neither is nor ever will 
be anything of higher importance in truth either in heaven or on 
earth. 


'The fondness of the lover is not a matter of good will, but of 
appetite which he wishes to satisfy.' 

'Ws lukoi arn agapws', ws paida philousin erastai', 'just as the 
wolf loves the lamb, so the lover adores his beloved.' 

But their foolishness was really funny besides, for while they 
were saying nothing sound or true, they put on airs as though 
they amounted to something, if they could cheat some mere 
manikins and gain honour among them. 


Is Socrates a set of people, or a set of questions by various people 
you talk with? 

Madness, which comes from god, is superior to sanity, which is 
of human origin. 


When 'distress and the greatest troubles' visit us 'through some 
344 Jidy 2005 Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


ancient guilt', madness, taking refuge in prayers, 'he who has this mad¬ 
ness is made safe for the present and the after time.' 

'A third kind of madness comes from the Muses.' This 'arouses the 
soul to songs and poetry, by adorning countless deeds of the ancients 
educates later generations.' 

Os d' an dnen manias Mouswn epi poiyticds thuras aplncytai, peistheis zus 
ara ec technys icanos poiytys esomenos, atelys autos te cat y poiysis upo tys 
tzvn mainomenwn y tou szvphronountos yphanisthy. 


'But he who without the divine madness comes to the doors of 
the Muses, confident that he will be a good poet by art meets with 
no success, and the poetry of the sane man vanishes into nothingness 
before that of the inspired madness.' 

And our proof will not be believed by the merely clever, but will 
be accepted by the truly wise. 


The soul is ungenerated and immortal. The proof of this is given as 
follows. Soul is ever moving, not moved but itself moving. Therefore 
it is at the beginning of generation, thereby not generated. 

Perhaps soul is the God in us, and perhaps soul. Holy Spirit and 
God are synonyms. 

'But the divine is beauty, wisdom, goodness, and all such qualities.' 

For I must dare to speak the truth, especially as truth is my 
theme. For the colourless, the formless, and intangible truly ex¬ 
isting essence with which all true knowledge is concerned holds 
this region and is visible only to the mind, the pilot of the soul. 


Soul is with God, and somehow is detached from Him. 

I think soul is never detached from God, since God is the Superset. 

'And when they have come away they feed upon opinion', lose 
their wings and fall to the ground, enter human the order of whom is, 

1. a philosopher or a lover of beauty 

2. a lawful king or a warlike ruler 

3. a politician, a man of business, or a financier 

4. a hard-working gymnast or those who cure the body 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


345 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


5. a prophet or those who conduct mystic rite 

6. a poet or some other imitative artist 

7. a craftsman or a husbandman 

8. a Sophist or a demagogue 

9. a tyrant 

Souls may pass from man to beast and from beast to man. 

For the soul which has never seen the truth can never pass into 
human form. For a human being must understand a general 
conception formed by collecting into a unity by means of reason 
the many perceptions of the senses; and this is a recollection of 
those things which our soul, once beheld, when it journeyed with 
God. 


'The mind of the philosopher only has wings, for he is always, so 
far as he is able, in communion through memory with those things the 
communion with which causes God to be divine.' Fie is initiated into 
perfect mysteries and alone becomes truly perfect, 'separate himself 
from human interests and turns his attention toward the divine, he is 
rebuked by the vulgar, who consider him mad and do not know that 
he is inspired.' 

This fourth kind of madness, 'when he sees the beauty on earth, 
remembering the true beauty, feels his wings growing and longs to 
stretch them for an upward flight, but cannot do so, and, like a bird, 
gazes upward and neglects the things below.' 

Fie who loves the beautiful, partaking in this madness, is called 
a lover. 


Pure light, 'not entombed in this which we carry about with us and 
call the body, in which we are imprisoned like an oyster in its shell.' 


346 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Fred Hoyle 

Kit Tyabandha and Kit Tiyapan 

July 2004 

The Origin of Elements 


The second author, Tiyapan, had come across writings by Fred 
Hoyle first in 2001. Since then, through his works we have been fasci¬ 
nated with his genius, imagination and originality. Hoyle is an excellent 
teacher who was truly here to influence. 

The revolutionary paper by Burbridge et al (1957) was in fact orig¬ 
inated by ideas of its last author, F Hoyle. In it the authors explained 
for the first time the origin of all the chemical elements known. Some 
originate in the cores of stars, others in those of supernovae. Hoyle 
went on to refine this theory in his later publications, for instance the 
one (Hoyle, 1960) where he concludes that the e-process formation of 
the iron-group elements takes place in Type II supernovae, while the 
r-process formation of the neutron-rich isotopes of the heavy elements 
occurs at the core of Type I supernovae. He also coined here the ab¬ 
breviation 'B 2 FH' used to represent the 1957 paper mentioned. Since 
both of these papers are technical, to understand them one needs to 
know existing theories of stellar evolution first. One needs also to have 
a sound mathematical background, since Mathematics is the language 
of Physics, and Physics is literature. 


Fowler and Hoyle (1964) explains the neutrino emission. They 
are friends, though people say Fowler got the Nobel Prize Hoyle de¬ 
serves. In this work they listed ten possible processes that emit neutri¬ 
nos. These are those occurring. 


1 . 


in hydrogen burning through proton-proton chain or the CNO bi¬ 
cycle, 

4p -> a + 2e + + 2v, 


2. in beta-decays, that is to say, the production of beta-unstable nuclei 
during energy generation and nucleosynthesis in nuclear processes 
involving intermediate and heavy nuclei. 


(a) (z + 1 , A) —> ( Z, A ) + e"*" + is, 
Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


347 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


a proton in nucleus transforms into a neutron, or 
( b)(Z — 1, A) —> ( Z, ,4) -f- e An, 

a neutron in nucleus, or a free neutron transforms into a protron. 
Instead of (a) we may alternatively have the electron capture, 

(c) e + (Z + 1, A) —> ( Z, ,4) + v. 

Free n,since it has a greater rest mass, decays into p through the follow¬ 
ing process, 

( d) n —> p + e~ + V. 

3. In the Urea process by Gamow and Schonberg, extended by Pinaev, 
under equilibrium conditions at high T and p in stars. The gave 
the references by Gamow and Schonberg (1941), Gandel'man and 
Pinaev (1960) and Pinaev (1964). 

The process is this, 

(a) 

e + ( Z, AJ) (Z — 1, d.) + v, 

followed by 

(Z — 1, A) —> ( Z , AJ) + e + P, 
or as extended by Pinaev, 

e + + (Z — 1, ,4) —> ( Z , A3) + v, 

such that 

e + ( Z , A) — y (Z, A) + e + v + 9 
or according to Pinaev, 

e + + e + ( Z, Ad) —> ( Z, Ad) + v + 9. 


The corresponding Urea process for positrons in antistars, 

0 ) 

e + + ( Z, ,4) —> ( Z + 1, A) + P, 


348 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


and 

(Z + 1, A) —> ( Z, A) + e + + is, 

or from Pinaev, 


e + (Z + 1, .4) —> (2, A) + i', 

therefore 

e + + (Z, yl) —> ( 2 , .4) + e + + r' + P, 
or according to Pinaev's extension, 

e + + e + ( Z, A) —> (Z, A ) + is + P. 

4. As the neutrino bremsstrahlung, introduced by Pontecorvo (1959), 
in which a neutrino pair replaces the usual photon emitted in in¬ 
elastic electron scattering 

+ ( Z, A ) —> + ( Z, A ) + v + P. 

5. As photoneutrino process, from the works by Ritus (1961) and 
Chiu and Stabler (1961), where a neutrino pair replaces the scat¬ 
tered photon in photon-electron interaction 

7 + e ± e ± + is + P- 

6. In the pair-annihilation neutrino process, according to Chiu and 
Morrison (1960) and also Levine, in which a neutrino pair replaces 
the photons usually emitted in an e _ -e + annihilation, 

e + -f e~ —> is + P. 

These e~ and e + are produced at high T in stars by electromagnetic 
radiation field. 

7. As, also according to Chiu and Morrison (ibid.), 

( a) 7 + 7 -> is + P, 

( b) 7 + 7^7 + ^ + P. 

Gell-Mann (1958 and 1961) showed that (a) is forbidden for cer¬ 
tain forms of the weak interaction. Reference is made of the work by 
Feynman and Gell-Mann (1958.) 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


349 



Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


8. In the Coulomb field of a nucleus, following Matinyan and Tsilosa- 
ni (1961) and also Rosenberg (1963), where 

7 + ( Z , A) —> ( 1 ?, A) + v + 9. 


9. In the decay of plasmons in a stellar plasma, in a work by Adams, 

Ruderman and Woo, 

l P i -> v + P, 

for the details of which they referred us to the review works by 

Wu (1961) and Reines (1960.) 

10. As 

(o)P + p —> n + e + , 

which has been detected by radiative annihilation of e + and radia¬ 
tion capture of n by nuclei in experiments, and 

(b)v + n -» p + e , 

which has yet to be observed due to the lack of high-intensity neu¬ 
trino sources on earth. Fission reactors are antineutrino sources. 

Not only a theoretical physicist, Hoyle also produced radio pro¬ 
grammes and write books for a more general audience. He wrote in 
1977 Ten faces of the Universe in which he gives an inspirational introduc¬ 
tion to Cosmology. In this book he began by mentioning about James 
Jeans whose lecture in 1930 he attended at the University of Cambridge. 
Jeans had written the book The Mysterious Universe in which he argues 
about God the mathematician. But all attributes of God, the author 
said, are those of men. 

Man normally gives attributes of men to God. Hoyle adopted the 
belief popular among scientists, that there is no god. Obviously he did 
not realise God is Superset. Yet he comes very close to Truth indeed 
when he compared repeatable results to revealed truth. 

Hoyle criticised our wrong education system which 'seeks to rekin¬ 
dle amber after it is quenched.' A baby when 6-9 months old is highly 
developed in three-dimensional geometry, and when 9-15 months old 
in set. After that, at the same time that it begins to learn a language, the 
development turns downhill while the language it is learning brings 
with it nonsense words. He thinks that priests and clergymen cause 


350 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 


pain when they persist in repeating nonsense words and concepts to 
children. Words like 'Catholic eyes', 'Protestant legs', 'Marxist num¬ 
bers', 'capitalist geometry' are similar to one another in that they are 
all made up of a nonsense word coupled with a valid word. 

He referred to Men of mathematics (1937) by E T Bell, and The mysteri¬ 
ous universe (1930) by J H Jeans. He also talked about a personal experi¬ 
ence while being on a plane travelling in the north-west of Greenland, 
when he saw the Sun rising from the west. 

Hoyle derived the theory he expounded in B 2 FH partly from the 
abundance of the elements, and the latest update then of this informa¬ 
tion seems to be that which was produced by Cameron (1970.) The 
abundance of elements is derived from the composition of meteorites. 

The study of elements leads one to the study of fundamental parti¬ 
cles in Physics. Atomic Physics studies electron patterns, while Nuclear 
Physics studies compact proton and neutron threads. The atomic num¬ 
ber Z is the number of protons, and the value of the atomic mass is rela¬ 
tive to proton. Isotopes are different from one another in their numbers 
of neutrons. 'Thread and cable,' Hoyle said, 'represent a whole history.' 
By 'cable' he meant a group of bodies. 

A neutron may turn into a proton, plus other particles, that is to 
say, n —> p+ other particles. Similarly a proton into a neutron together 
with some other particles, that is p -> n+ other particles. This leads us 
to the discovery of the eightfold way, which are in fact the eight baryons, 
namely p, n, A, E + , E°, E ~, S _ and S°. Moreover the latter six baryons 
here may be converted back into a neutron or a proton, 

A, E + , E°, E“, E _ , S° -> n or p + other particles. 

These other particles are the leptons, and the processes occur in 0( 10" 10 
s) time. Hoyle mentions the family of ten, for example O - . 

Gell-Mann and Zweig independently discovered quark, which is 
categorised into up, down and strange. The strange quark is present 
in neither n or p. The name 'quark' was adopted such that to avoid 
everyday associations. Those quarks in p are up, up and down; those 
in n up, down and down; those in T up, down, strange; and those in Cl 
strange, strange, strange. 

The theory of groups was discovered by Evariste Galois (1811— 
1832) according to which T" encompasses T', etc. But there is no ul¬ 
timate theory T'"-. A reference is made here of Glashow (1975) and 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


351 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


mentioned are Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836), Ludwig Boltzmann 
(1844-1906), James Clerk-Maxwell (1831-1879), Charles Augustin de 
Coulomb (1736-1806), Albert Einstein (1879-1955), and William Thom¬ 
son (Lord Kelvin, 1824-1907). One can see perhaps the politics and 
ambitions of the past in the following quoted words by Samuel John¬ 
son to James Boswell. 

Norway, too, has noble wild prospects; and Lapland is remark¬ 
able for prodigious noble wild prospects. But, Sir, let me tell 
you, the noblest prospect which a Scotchman ever sees is the 
high road that leads him from Auld Reekie to London. 


'Auld Reekie' is the Scottish name of Edinburgh. 

Four types of interactions act on different distance scales on body 
in the Universe. The gravitational force acts over a large distance, the 
electrical force approximately 10" 8 -10" 7 cm, and both the weak and the 
strong nuclear forces 10" 13 -10" 12 cm. Developments in Physics is always 
in the form x = y, where x represents theories and y observations. For 
example, when y was Tycho Brahe's observed position of Mars, and 
x the theory by Copernicus, which proved not satisfactory, there came 
another theory by Kepler. When y was the observed rotation of the long 
axis of the elliptic orbit of Mercury by Simon Newcombe, the x theory 
by Einstein fits the picture better than that previous one by Newton. 

The electromagnetic theory by Maxwell (1864) led to subsequent 
works by H A Lorentz (1904), H Poincare, A Einstein, M Planck and 
H Minkowski (1908.) What these latter did was adding four equations, 
which led to E = me 2 . Lorentz's theory is in a preliminary form while 
Minkowski's in complete one. 

The idea of aether in the nineteenth century proved to be a false 
path. Aether is a Greek word which means invisible jelly. So now, with 
their later discovery, scientists use nonsense words like 'quark' in order 
to avoid any cultural associations. 

Hoyle talks about Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), Johann Carl 
Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953), Thom¬ 
as Robert Malthus (1766-1834), Georg Friedrich Bernard Rieman (1826- 
1866) and Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930). 

Galaxies are relatively closer together than stars are to one another. 
He describes what Hubble has found. 

352 Jidy 2005 Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Galaxies exist cheek-by-jowl compared with stars within a galaxy. 
In terms of their own scales, stars are widely spaced, where as 
galaxies are rather closely spaced. 


There are altogether, he said, 10 8 -10 9 galaxies. 

In 1965 A Penzias and R W Wilson detected a uniform radio wave 
coming from all distance in space. Galaxies form polygons in space. 
Uniformity means the same shape of polygon, only differing in scale. 
Measuring the scale, the Universe may expand forever, or there may 
come contraction after expansion. 

Rieman, it seems, has found out that 

The size of atom is determined by the masses of its constituent 
particles - the larger the masses, the smaller the atoms, the rela¬ 
tion being reciprocal. 


If one keep the galaxy polygon fixed, then atoms decrease in size 
with time. This is the first time I have heard anybody put it this way. 
Accordingly the light from smaller mass of distant galaxy becomes red¬ 
der. Though Hoyle said he did not believe in God, from what he said 
above God creates the Universe by creating everywhere each individual 
atom and particle by increasing their mass from zero to their present 
values, which still keep on gradually growing. That point of Creation 
was approximately 15,000 million years ago. If we let that instance be 
t = 0, we may project the time backwards beyond that when masses 
were negative. Then our Universe is just one domain within the large- 
scale plus and minus aggregates. The range or our telescope does not 
even cover the entirety of the domain we are in. Hoyle calls this 'aggre¬ 
gate of mass interactions.' This would be in accordance with Maxwell's 
theory of the electrical interaction that permits either past-to-future or 
future-to-past time sequence. And Gauss certainly thought this was the 
case. Hoyle describes how in 1940's this was the idea of John Wheeler 
and Richard Feynman. 

They boldly accepted Gauss' idea of a local electrical interaction 
going equally future-to-past and past-to-future. They then ar¬ 
gued that the observed asymmetry of cause and effect in the 
world, past-to-future only, was a nonlocal effect arising from the 
large-scale influence of the whole universe. 


Thus, 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


353 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Time-symmetric local laws 

+ 

Response of the universe 

I 

Observed sequence of cause and effect 


Hoyle views his steady-state Universe as having matter continu¬ 
ally created from antimatter in empty space, and vice versa matter into 
antimatter annihilated. When the time the trigger mechanism is acti¬ 
vated is At, the chance that one of the nuclei undergoes change in this 
time At is NAt/X, where A is the life-time of nucleus. 

The Earth was formed 4,500 myBP, that is to say, 4,500 million 
years Before Present. Long after this it was that existing continents 
move relative to one another unto this time (cf Hoyle, 1972.) As Oparin 
pointed out, random ordering of amino acids to form proteins will 
never work quick enough for natural selection according to the theory 
of Darwin. Therefore life has already existed in space long before the 
otherwise presumed Big Bang. 

As pointed out, the comparative amount of energy we have are 10 30 
ergs in total from coal and oil, 10 31 ergs per yer from tides, 10 29 ergs per 
year from wind, 2 x 10 27 ergs per year from hydroelectric source. From 
these figures tides and wind energy may seem to be highly prospective 
candidates for the necessary, future renewable source of energy but for 
that the energy required to extract them is too large to be practicable. 
The energy unit 'erg' is defined such that 1 kW ■ s = 10 10 ergs. The 
sunlight absorbed by Earth amounts to 3.4 x 10 31 ergs/yr and the food 
eaten by humans is approximately 1.5 x 10 26 ergs/yr. 

According to Malthus population grows in an exponentially in¬ 
creasing smooth curve while productivity does in steps because of the 
discoveries of one technology after another. Both an energy crisis and 
isolation of a community produce the same effect of sharply shedding 
the population. 

Bibliography 

J D Bernal. The physical basis of life. 1951. 

H A Bethe. Scientific America. 234, 21. Jan, 1976. 

E M Burbridge, G R Burbridge, W A Fowler and F Hoyle. Revieivs of 
354 July 2005 Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Modern Physics. 29. 1957. 

A G W Cameron. Space Science Reviews. 15, 121-146. 1970. 

H -Y Chiu and P Morrison. Phys. Rev. Letters. 5, 573. 1960. 

H -Y Chiu and R Stabler. Phys. Rev 122, 1317. 1961. 

Allen J Dewey. Plate Tectonics. 1972. 

R Dietz et al. The breakup of Pangaea. 1970. 

R P Feynman and M Gell-Mann. Phys. Rev. 109, 193. 1958. 

W A Fowler. Nuclear Astrophysics. 1965. 

William A Fowler and F Hoyle. Neutrino processes and pair formation 
in massive stars and supernovae. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement 
Series. Supplement Number 91. 1964. 

Frontiers in Astronomy. Readings from Scientific American. W H Freeman. 
1970. 

G Gamow and M Schonberg. Physical Reviezvs. 59, 539. 1941. 

G M Gandel'man and V S Pinaev. Zhur. Eksp. i Teoret. Fiz. 37, 1072; 
Soviet Phys. -JETP10, 764. 1960. 

C F Gauss. Werke. V. L29. 1867. 

M Gell-Mann. Phys. Rev. Ill, 362. 1958. 

Fred Hoyle. Continents adrift. 1972. 

—. Ten faces of the Universe. Heineman. 1977. 

Fred Hoyle et al. A ction at a distance in Physics and Cosmology. 1974. 

F Hoyle and William A Fowler. Nucleosynthesis in supernovae. The 
Astrophysical Journal. 132, 3, 123-47. 1960. 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


355 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 
S E Hunt. Fission, fusion, and the energy crisis. 1974. 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


P M Hurley. The confirmation of Continental Drift. 1968. 

H A Lorentz. Amsterdam Proceedings. VI, 809. 1904. 

S G Matinyan and N N Tsilosani. Zhur. Eksp. i Teoret. Fiz. 41, 1681. 
1961.; Soviet Phys. -JETP 14, 1195. 1962. 

J C Maxwell. A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field. 1864. 

H Minkowski. Gott. Nach. 53. 1908. 

P Morrison. Scientific America. 196, 45. April, 1957. 

J R Newman. Scientific America. 192, 58. June, 1955. 

A I Oparin. The origin of life on Earth. 1938. 

—. Genesis and evolutionary development of life. 1968. 

V S Pinaev. Zhur. Eksp. i Teoret. Fiz. 45, 548; Soviet Phys. -JETP 18, 377. 
1964. 

B Pontecorvo. Zhur. Eksp. i Teoret. Fiz. 36, 1615. 1959.; Soviet Phys. 
-JETP 9, 1148. 

F Press etal. Earth. 1972. 

F Reines. Ann. Rev. Nuclear Sci. 10, 1. 1960. 

V I Ritus. Zhur. Eksp. i Teoret. Fiz. 41, 1285. 1961.; Soviet Phys. -JETP 
14, 915. 1962. 

L Rosenberg. Phys. Rev. 129, 2789. 1963. 

Shelton Geology. 1966. 

John von Neumann. Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik. 1932. 
356 Jidy 2005 Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


J A Wheeler etal. Reviews of Modern Physics. 17, 157. 1945. 


—. Reviews of Modern Physics. 21, 425. 1949. 


C S Wu. The neutrino, theoretical physics in the twentieth century, a memo¬ 
rial volume to Wolfgang Paidi. Ed. M Fierz and V F Weisskopf. NY 
Interscience. 1961. 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


357 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


The Tale of Two Sisters 

Kit Tyabandha, Ph.D. 


I do not know whether one may call the culture of Lanna and Thai 
brother cultures, but the languages of the same can truely be called 
sister languages. 

'How much of the misunderstanding in this world could have been 
from nothing other than the difference in the languages'. This is espe¬ 
cially true for the two languages which look deceivingly similar oth¬ 
erwise, as examples consider Portuguese and Spanish, American and 
English. 

To me, a language is becoming extinct also when there is no way 
you could write it down correctly. In the case of Lanna, its system of 
writing had been falling out of use and there is nothing to replace it 
with. But now the situation has been reversed, and the Lanna script is 
making its way back. There is no longer any need for the romanised 
system of writing like the one I have discovered except (and this is 
more important in my point of view) in the study of language families. 

Even though Lanna is a sister language of Thai, they are different. 
For one thing, since the Tonal Split which occurred sometimes during 
the middle period of Ayndhaya the number of tones in the former has 
become six, whereas that in the latter is five. 

In theory you could write Lanna using the Thai alphabet quite eas¬ 
ily. But several complications hinder this. One of these is the following. 

Both Lanna and Thai divide their alphabets into three groups, 
namely high, middle and low. And their alphabets are mostly the same 
or similar. But each often puts the same alphabet into a different group 
from the other. 

Seriously this is confusing. For example, you may write the word 
‘pen’, which approximately means 'to be', is a word in both languages, 
and you may easily write the Lanna word using the Thai script. But if 
it is in a Lanna context, you pronounce it not as you would have had 
it been written as pen in Thai. This is because the alphabet p is in Thai 
a Middle Alphabet while in Lanna it is a High Alphabet. 


358 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Seriously, this is so strangely confusing. And the normal practice 
when people write Lanna using the Thai alphabets is that they change 
the original spelling into pen to facilitate the pronunciation. 

This is a serious crime to the grammar. On top of this, as a rule, 
the spelling pen in Thai implies that the word is definitely not of the Tai 
language family origin. 

In other words, if you write Lanna using the Thai alphabets and 
change the tonal symbols to facilitate the reading, then it would seem 
as though they were unrelated languages. In Thai, for the Middle Al¬ 
phabets (say p), only pen, pen and pen can be Thai in origin. Pen is either 
a foreign word or an onomatopoeia, while pen is definitely foreign. 

In order to be able to write a grammar book on the Thai language 
using romanised alphabets, one need to have the transcription system 
in question first. This is what simply does not exist, not only for Thai 
but also for Lanna and all the other languages within the Tai family. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


359 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Percolation in Medical Science 

Kit Tyabandha, Ph.D. 

2 nd October 2002 


Many diseases can be best thought of as related to percolation 
when a threshold exists passing the point of which it is difficult to 
return or to get back to normal. For example a cut may take several 
weeks to completely heal, but muscular strains could take several years 
and even then they usually leave a weak spot and thus can not be 
considered as completely healed. This means that despite the turn 
over of cells within the fibers of the muscle, the strain still prevail. In 
other words it has buried itself into the structure of the fiber and no 
longer is related merely with the individual cells. Not only muscular 
fibers, but also the brain and the nervous system may be viewed as 
a kind of networks. Therefore it is not difficult to see many nervous 
or brain diseases as percolated phenomena. Madness and its onset is 
an easy example. Deafness, either gradual or sudden, is another one. 
The difference between a sudden and a gradual onsets of deafness lies 
in the position of the percolation threshold on the timescale. In the 
former the network percolates after a period of hidden graduation or 
deterioration in the condition of the inbuilt sound detector, while in the 
latter it percolates before the graduation down towards the deafness. 
Most books on otology talk about sudden onsets of deafness, normally 
overnight. The reason they are much talked about is more likely to 
be because of their tragic nature than because they are common. It is 
interesting to note that the word otology means the study of the ears, 
-logy is suffix which comes from the Greek word logos, meaning the 
study of, while of or ot means ear. It is probably a coincidence rather 
than a linguistic relationship between the two languages that oto is the 
Japanese word for sound. 

I should have something to say about the Meniere disease because 
both my previous general physician Dr. Sreedharan and the present one 
Dr. Chan think that it is what I have. I do not quite agree with them, 
but if both of them were right and I am wrong then Meniere disease 
results from the accumulation of certain things which then percolates, 
and I think I know what these things are. This would have been rather 
a medical breakthrough because all medical textbooks that I have come 
across anonymously agree that this is a disorder the cause of which 
is excluded from its definition. In other words all we know about 


360 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


is what its symptoms are, nobody knows what causes them. What I 
maintain is this; provided that both of my doctors diagnosed correctly 
then the cause of it must be percolation. Having said that, I do not 
think that they did diagnose right, for even though I have both the 
pressure in the ear and the tinnitus, I never have vertigo. It is true that I 
have some experience of syncope which is even worse than vertigo, but 
they are not the same thing. Physicians, however, insist that you must 
have vertigo no matter if you say you don't, because then they would 
know that you have the thing called Meniere disease the definition of 
which they do not know anyway! The disease is named after a french 
physician Prosper Meniere who first described it in 1861. 

Tinnitus is the constant rumbling or ringing in the ears. The sound 
can be real and sometimes can be heard by others. Many things can 
cause it, for example (cf Andrews, 1997) excess noise level, alcohol, al¬ 
lergies, antibiotics, blood glucose or blood pressure swing, circulation 
changes, cranial or jaw-joint misalignment, fever, inflammation, tem¬ 
poromandibular jaw joint diseases, tumours on acoustic nerve. It can 
also be caused by metallic - aluminium, lead, or mercury - poison. If 
the cause of it is a prolonged or excessive level of sound, then the pro¬ 
cess would be similar to that which causes, for instance, the repetitive 
strain injury. 

I will now explain why it should have something to do with per¬ 
colation. First, I think it is sound or the excess of it which causes the 
percolation. Next let me give some facts which lead me to the con¬ 
clusion above. Around the turn of this millennium a friend of mine 
bought two concert tickets and invited me to join her. Seldom been to 
a concert, I was delighted. And having noticed that the programme 
includes a piano recital of one movement from a sonata, probably the 
fifth, by Scriabin, I decided that I would do my homework in order to 
gain as much as possible from the concert. At that time I had recently 
bought the music, a complete sonatas by Alexander Scriabin. They are 
a total of ten sonatas, and I sat at the piano and read them one by 
one, day after day. Ten hours a day at the piano was sufficient to give 
me the obvious sign of an ear problem. For a few days I could not 
hear anything clearly, and could hardly speak normally. The second 
sign came not long after I had been to a Community Action confer¬ 
ence held in Liverpool. The conference was something new and was 
very interesting, but I discovered there that young volunteers enjoy too 
loud a music on the dance floor at night to the cost of my ears. Again 
the following few days gave me the most alarming feeling, I hardly 
could hear anything, and whatever sound I heard seemed like coming 
from the outside to me inside a sealed tank. This together with the 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


361 



Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


experience of having lived in Bangkok, the city where noise pollution 
ranks number one, and that of having listened to loud music myself 
when I was young, have combined to reach the limiting threshold. As 
I am writing now I still have yet to recover from the second trauma to 
the ears mentioned. There is a saying that the third time pays for all 
(cf Tolkien, 1955), and so I hope that the third time shall never come 
considering that the second one has already been this bad and I am in 
doubt whether I will be able to recover from it. But to me it is clear 
that this has got something to do with a limiting threshold and thus 
percolation. 

In the case of Beethoven, who also had an ear problem which 
results in a total deafness, most modern physicians think that the cause 
was multiple sclerosis, which I also disagree. As a great pianist and a 
conductor he was exposed to much sound, so I suspect that the latter 
is also the culprit in his case. It seems an irony that for such people, as 
well as for myself, music is life and music hurts. 

Some thinks of multiple personalities as the fragmentation of the 
mind or brain (cf Keyes, 1999) which causes a person to identify himself 
as different personalities each of which has its own memory separate 
from the others. There is a transfer of control at the switching from 
one personality to another, and all the personalities could use the same 
body in turn. It is more likely that instead of fragmentation the vari¬ 
ous personalities are different phases coexisting in the same network of 
the mind. Like a polyglot or a normal person switching phases among 
different languages he knows, a person with multiple personalities un¬ 
consciously switches himself from one self of his to another. Multiple 
personalities often report head voices of one self talking to another. 
These head voices are distinct conversations and thus are different from 
those experienced by people with schizophrenia. The various personal¬ 
ities have different Electro-Encephalograms, Intelligent Quotients, and 
psychological test results. This altered state phenomena is normally 
cured by fusing the personalities together, but some say that the this is 
not necessary as long as all the personalities are aware of one another. 
Similar to multiple personalities a person is often said to have good 
and bad sides, or in some cases selves (cf Stevenson, 1886). 

We still do not understand much about sleep, that state where the 
mind finds itself in phases which are different from the awaking self. 
No one seems to know why it is necessary that we sleep at all, but 
all animals sleep, or die if they are deprived of it. Dolphins sleep 
one hemisphere of the brain at a time. Sleep and wakefulness are two 
different phases of the mind, and the sleep itself may contain more than 


362 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 


one phase. The transitions back and forth among these various phases 
are the same as the changes of phases characteristic to percolation. 
A person normally has several dreams while he sleeps, but only the 
immediate one from which he is wakened up is remembered. This may 
mean that during sleep the mind is switched among various phases, or 
it may mean that in sleep the mind only has a short-term memory. 

Subconscious mind can sometimes come to the front. This often 
happens when the conscious mind becomes weak. When a man be¬ 
comes drunk, for instance, he may be able to find his way home only to 
wake up the following morning, sober and wondering how he has got 
there. This is because in the drunken state his mind becomes muddled 
up by the effect of alcohol that the subconscious mind took control to 
lead him home unconsciously. Multiple personality represents the frag¬ 
mentation of the subconscious mind into virtual clusters each of which 
then alternately comes to the front to parade as a person. These clus¬ 
ters are probably superimposed in three or higher dimensions, without 
overlapping one another, in a way similar to the intertwining of clusters 
in a three-dimensional Voronoi network. The change of personality in 
this case is then a transfer from one phase to another. The first and most 
important fragmentation which leads towards a multiple personality 
seems to happen only in children at around the age of three, when the 
mind is in the forming and the language of the mind is predominantly 
geometrical, while later and minor fragmentations are possible much 
later afterward. Our minds during sleep seem to be another layer sep¬ 
arate from and exists below both the conscious and all fragments of the 
subconscious mind, as can be seen by the fact that a person with multi¬ 
ple personalities also needs to sleep. Some of the most fearsome and the 
least understood sicknesses like Parkinsonism and Encephalitis Lethar- 
gica, or the sleeping sickness, affects only the conscious part of the 
mind, not the higher faculties of the unconscious part [cf Sacks, 1973). 
One of the effects of the medicine laevo-dihydroxyphenylalanine, or 
L-DOPA, seems to be that of letting the subconscious mind take over 
to motor functions. The condition of the patients usually improves 
quickly soon after first put on the medicine, then overshoots a stable 
condition and shows adverse effects of the medication which are no less 
gruesome than the symptoms before starting to take the drug. These 
counter symptoms probably occurs in Control Systems as an overshoot 
in the output in response to a step function which represents the usual 
constant daily dosage used. Because such undesirable symptom occurs 
in most cases, dosage should either be reduced before the overshoot 
occurs in accordance with the empirical time constant of the response, 
or increased very gradually from zero at the beginning in order to reach 
the steady state be reached without an overshoot, as an analogous to an 
over- or critically damped control scheme. One of the most intriguing 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


363 



Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


effects of too much use of L-DOPA is that primitive, sometimes subhu¬ 
man, behaviours could be brought to the front while the patient himself 
can only stand back as a witness to his own self without being able to 
do anything to stop them. 

In the art and science of Neurology there is no lack of phase tran¬ 
sition phenomena. So much so that symptoms normally come in pairs 
of opposing poles, for example aboulia - hyperboulia, automatism - 
command-negativism, bulimia - anorexia, and perseveration - block. 
Within these pairs the poles may switches suddenly as can be seen in 
kinexia paradoxa, the explosive transition between hyperkinesia and 
akinesia. Somewhere between the two poles lies our normal condi¬ 
tions. In many of post-encephalitic patients taking L-DOPA, this middle 
ground which starts off very wide can rapidly shrink until the patients 
find themselves balancing on the edge of a knife and it becomes impos¬ 
sible to calibrate the drug to the right amount. 


364 


July 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


On My Past Writings 

Kit Tyabandha, Ph.D. 

2 nd October 2002 

Cyberspace 


In 1983 Apple computers had been installed in number at the Ash¬ 
burton College, New Zealand, where I was doing my Sixth Form as an 
American Field Service exchange student, and Pascal was taught. In 
1993 I worked as a Security Officer for the TelecomAsia Company in 
Thailand. My job was to look after data on the three mainframe com¬ 
puters in use. It was there that I learnt terms like cyberspace and hackers. 
I became fascinated by this idea, that there is a virtual space tessellated 
into partitions which house a population whose identity is related to 
real people, because to me it is a whole new dimension added to the 
existing ones. Starting doing my master degree in Control and Infor¬ 
mation Technology at UMIST in 1994, I came in closer touch with the 
cyberspace community through the use of Unix is the first thing taught 
in that course. I voluntarily wrote two articles on the subject, the first 
one is about cyberspace (Tiyapan, 1994) and the second one about its 
security (Tiyapan, 1996d). 


Sociology 


The nature of discoveries and progresses in science is according to 
Bacon (Francis Bacon, 1620) a birth of Time rather than a birth of Wit. This 
is the same idea of percolation and the description he gave is the very 
picture of the theory. According to him major scientific progresses come 
in revolutions which are sparsely distributed in both time and regions. 
There have only been three periods of major progress out of the five and 
twenty centuries over which the memory and learning of men extends, namely 
the Greeks, the Romans and the nations of Western Europe. These are 
narrow limits of time, the periods in between of which are unfavourable 
to development. A discovery or an invention, then, comes as a chance 
accident in the scale of an individual, and as a certainty when looking 
from a distance. 

When the time is right and all the hidden momentum built up, 
theories will come on by itself as a rule. This does not negate the 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


365 



Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


excellence of an individual, but in a society where there are enough 
multitude of individuals the show will always go on, with or without 
a particular genius. This idea can very well explain cases of multiple 
discoveries. According to Kekule in his Benzolfest speech in 1890, when 
he ascribed his conception of the cyclic nature of Benzene in dreams, 
certain ideas at certain times are in the air and if one man does not enunciate them, 
other will do so soon afterwards. 

To see the relationship of this with percolation it is possible to 
look at two different things in turn, first at the discoveries and then at 
the discoverers. With a unit being that of a discovery the connection to 
percolation is that big discoveries come as connections of other smaller 
and less obvious ones. A theory often has more than one perspec¬ 
tive, and which one of them comes to the fore first depends much on 
which combination happens to percolate through first. The discoveries 
of Schrodinger and Heisenberg in Quantum Physics can bear witness 
to this both in the combination and the multiple discoveries parts of this 
argument. 

Let us turn our attention now to the scientist and look at the one 
who does the discovering instead. The theory of percolation tells us 
that at the point of discovery he is by no mean the sole integral ingre¬ 
dient. If he does not do it, then someone else will certainly do. In order 
to see this, I did four simulations for the cell, bond, vertice, and edge 
percolations on a two-dimensional Voronoi network and then another 
four with the same respective blockage of each case but considering 
the inverse phase instead. The number of units considered for the four 
cases are n c = 200, rib = 416, n v = 298, and n e = 426. With the order 
of simulations as described above, at just one step before percolation 
occurs there are respectively 10.6, 13.4, 11.5, 1.1, 11.24, 10.0, 19.4, and 
7.9 percents among the remaining units which will readily trigger the 
onset of percolation. In other words, these are atoms which are able to 
link up existing clusters and form a percolating cluster. 

The formation of mobs is an interesting phenomenon comparable 
with phase change in physics. What happens is that an agglomerate of 
individuals becomes one and a single creature, the underlying mecha¬ 
nism of which still baffles any effort towards understanding it. Likely 
enough it has got something to do with psychology and the mind. But 
to me at least, the phenomenon is percolative. Having gained some 
acceptance from my previous writings (Tiyapan, 1995, 1996a, 1996b) I 
gave my new work which briefly discusses the mechanism underlying 
the formation of mobs to an editor of the Sakkayaphab journal whom I 
know. At that time a political turmoil unequal in its degree and extent 


366 


July 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 


has been going on for five years. Whether by fate or by design there 
has been a successful but tragic use of mob in Bangkok. The word 
mob has joined the list of those synonym to distrust, namely communist 
or, in western community now for that matter, Islam and evil. Whether 
because of this or something else, the article (Tiyapan, 1996c) simply 
and mysteriously got lost; no one would admit having seen it, and the 
translation of another subsequent article of mine (Tiyapan, 1996d) has 
not been without a noticeable negligence. Thus to me distrust is also 
percolative. The list of things one finds over-distrusted without reason¬ 
able explanation goes on indefinitely, homosexuality, communism, etc. 
The same seems to be the case with bad habits. My father used to teach 
me using the following poem. 

Bad habit gathers by unseen degree 

like brook makes river, river runs to sea. 


Looking back, it could have been the title of that article, on prag¬ 
matists and idealists, which has somehow convinced the editors into be¬ 
lieving that it was political which to me is nonsensical. I only meant 
literary, even if at times philosophical. I include it here because it con¬ 
tains a curve showing a critical emotional transition. 

The formation of the United States, the European Union, or the 
Commonwealth comes from the trust which acts to join countries to¬ 
gether like glue boxes in TgX. Like all binding forces, trust is mutual and 
spreads in the same way as a growing cluster does. The cluster grows 
bigger as one or more members are added, and it becomes stronger as 
the level of the mutual trust increases. In a similar way, distrust is also 
mutual and also spreads. If I distrust you and you distrust me, I will 
make sure that I remain as far away from you as possible while you 
will certainly avoid me by all means in return. 

Only these two are possible, so there are only two phases to con¬ 
sider, that of trust and distrust. The relationship where one trusts while 
the other distrusts would not be stable, since the former will soon learn 
to join the latter. Trust forms clusters of one phase, distrust another. 
The size of these clusters vary in a way similar to those in percolation 
of geometrical networks. The strength of the glue is analogous to the 
probability either of becoming or remaining a member of a cluster. 

The rise of dictators, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruc¬ 
tion, etc, these things I believe are the products of changes of something 
hidden within the underlying structure. Unless we find out what is 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


367 



Tyabandlm Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


happening in the background, these things will unavoidably occur. I 
believe that this unseen thing behind the scene is governed by some 
phenomena similar to that of percolation. I think that the key towards 
understanding many unexplainable phenomena is to investigate, in the 
light of the percolation theory, the working of agglomeration of coun¬ 
tries or states like those of the United States and the European Union. 

The believe that scientific discoveries are a birth of time, rather 
than of wit ( cf Larsen, 1993), is the same as the idea of percolation. 
We know because we remember. And all the various discoveries of 
our time together with the knowledge we possess of the past bring us 
closer to another discovery. Scientific discoveries, then, is the collective 
product of humanity rather than property of a single person (cf Merton, 
1965). 

And because all species are also the product of percolation in time, 
our knowledge and consciousness, too, are the product of the universe. 
One may say that it is a personification when we refer to a collective 
noun, for instance a mob, as an individual. But the truth is that, under 
the percolation theory, it is in fact a separate individual without any 
need for the use of a simile. The renormalisation group theory tells 
us that there exists a structure in a bigger scale that behaves like the 
individual components that comprise it. It seems, therefore, that for 
humans these collective beings of ours are still primitive compared 
with each of us as an individual. This is the reason why, whenever 
we come together, we alway make wars. In our case, then, we seem to 
be conscientiously percolated only individually not collectively. In the 
case of bees, on the other hand, it is the other way round. This is why a 
colony of bees does things which make far better sense than a bee does. 
But one can not say that even a colony of bees has consciousness, because 
there seems to be no morals in what it does. I do not know whether 
there are other beings in the universe both the collective and individual 
beings of whom have percolated conscientiously. But I believe they 
exist, in which case they should be more intelligent than us, though 
this is by no means necessarily the case. 

Control Systems 


The following are relevant subjects in control systems. I have one 
first degree and one master degree in the subject. From 1995 to 1999 I 
did a doctorate course in Tokyo but decided to quit after three years. 
Research in this area is still one of the topics that I would like to do in 
the future. One year before leaving Japan my research results must have 
look quite well because on 22 nd April 1998 my supervisor Professor 


368 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Katsuhisa Furuta wrote me an email which says, 'Your reports are very 
nice! Excellent results. I am verymuch [sic] impressed. We can talk the 
results.', signed 'Furuta'. And again on 2 nd June 1998 another email, 
'Dear mr.kit [sic] please come and explain your synchronous motor. 
Where shall we introduce the controller?', signed 'Katsuhisa Furuta'. 

Although it is true that control systems is always used in military 
and missiles, one must not forget that it is also important for travelling 
in space and is likely to be of a great help to those space settlers search¬ 
ing for habitable planets in the future. Control system is used much in 
electrical, mechanical, and chemical engineering, with the typical time 
constant increasing in that order. 

This section is in a way a brief recapture of what I did during my 
PhD study at TIT, Japan. I collected my works in a form of Technical 
Reports and gave a copy each to Professor Furuta who was my super¬ 
visor then. Sometimes when there was a spare copy left I would give it 
to another senior staff who worked in the Minami 5 building where the 
Furuta lab used to be. The computer files of these reports is no longer 
available even to myself. A great number of figures from simulation 
results in these reports are not reproducible here without the Simulink 
facility on Matlab. The first of such report was dated 16 th July 1998 
but the works it contains started around the beginning of April of the 
same year. I studied systems listed in a book by Khalil (1996). One of 
these systems (Exercise 1.17 (4)) is 


Xi = X\ + x 2 - xi (|*i | + |x 2 |), (1) 

x 2 =-2xi + x 2 - x 2 (\xi\ + \x 2 \)+u, (2) 


where u is the input to the system and x\ and X 2 the state variables. 
Because the simultaneous equations si + — *1 (|*i| + |* 2 |) =0 and 

— 2 x\+X 2 — X 2 (|xi| + |x 2 |) = 0 are ill-formed, there can be no equilibrium 
points. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


369 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 



Figure 1 Phase plane of Equations 1 and 2 with no input 


In Figure 1 is shown the phase plane of the system described by 
Equations 1 and 2 when there is no input. The limit cycle in Figure 1 is 
elliptical with the major axis along the X 2 -axis. When the control input 
is u = sgn(xi + xf) the phase plane looks like Figure 2 (a) and when 
u = —(x i + xf) + sgn(xi + xf) Figure 2 (b). 


370 


jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 



( a ) 


(b) 


When there is no control Figure 1 shows that the equilibrium point 
at the origin is an unstable focus and there is a limit cycle circling 
around the origin. This limit cycle is slightly larger in the X 2 direction 
than in the x\ direction. Every trajectory starting from an initial point 
other than the origin goes to and then stays on this limit cycle. With 
the control input u = sgn(xi -\-xf) there is a discontinuity on the surface 
of the hyperplane s = x\ + X 2 = 0. All trajectories still converge to 
the limit cycle although the latter is distorted where it intersects the 
hyperplane. There is no node and every point on the hyperplane and 
inside the limit cycle is an unstable node. All these also hold when 
the control input is u = — (x\ + X 2 ) + sgn(a;i + X 2 ) and there are two 
additional nodes as shown in Figure 2 (b). 

During September and October 1996 I gave a series of seminars 
on a topic related to polytopes of polynomials. The topic I chose was 
recent (Pujara, 1996) and rather difficult for me but for me it was a 
success because the methods introduced was discussed weekly for at 
least a month in a series of the subsequent seminars, and they resulted 
in the idea being successfully applied, in the context of Pulse Width 
Modulation, by one of the students who attended in his Ph.D. work. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


Jidy 2005 


371 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


The following is a recapture of the original seminar I gave. The dis¬ 
cussions, which was the most interesting part in these seminars, are 
lost. A pseudoboundary is defined to be the set of all polynomials 
in the polytope each of which has at least one zero on the imaginary 
axis. A section of the pseudoboundary corresponding to Wo is a poly¬ 
tope whose vertices lie in the exposed 2-d faces of the given polytope. 
Pujara (1996) in his study of the stability boundary problem gave an 
algorithm to generate all the vertex polynomials of any section of the 
pseudoboundary of a polytope. A polytope is stable if and only if its ex¬ 
posed edges are stable. Interval polynomials are a hyperrectangle in co¬ 
efficient space with edges parallel to the coordinate axis. Kharitonov's 
results is that if a polynomial family consists of interval polynomials, 
then the stability of just four extreme polynomials is both necessary and 
sufficient for the stability of the entire rectangle. Consider the polyno¬ 
mial f(s, q) = s n + ai(q)s n ~ 1 + a 2 (q)s n ~ 2 + ... + a n -i(q)s + a n (q) which 
produces an r-dimensional polytope P in R n+1 . Here a^q), i = 1 to n, 
are real affine coefficients and q~ < qi < qf for every q^, 1 < i < r. For 
fixed q, this polynomial is a point in R n+1 whose coordinates are the 
coefficients of the polynomials. The pseudoboundary, B, is the set of 
polynomials in the polytope P each of which has at least one zero on 
the imaginary axis. The section, Bq, of /? at uiq consists of those polyno¬ 
mials each of which has a zero at jui o- If Z € C n+1 is a set of all zeros 
of this polynomial, then coo € W if and only if 3g(jcJo) € P such that 
g(j(jJ o) = 0. Every fi(jw o) is a polytope which has its vertices on the 
exposed 2-d faces of P, which in turn can be explicitly determined. 


Theorem. (Pujara, 1996) The section of the pseudoboundary B of a polytope 
P at any frequency Wo is a polytope. The vertices of this pseudoboundary lie 
in the exposed 2-d faces of the polytope P. 


The state equations of a dc motor are 


dt 

(3) 

T di , „. 

L— = — kui — Ri +u 
dt 

(4), 


where i is the armature current, u the voltage, R the resistance, L the 
inductance, J the moment of inertia, and ui the angular speed. The 
constant excitation flux <f> results in the torque ki and the back e.m.f. 

ku). 


372 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 



Figure 4 The eigenvalues of 
the dc motor as a function of 
£.. 



Epsilon 


My technical report number 6 (1998) I studied the control of syn¬ 
chronous machines. In the introduction I wrote to Professor Furuta to 
say that he may use any of the material without acknowledging me. 
I see it fits to describe briefly here some of the results because I ini¬ 
tiated and carried out the work, as is normally the case with most of 
my researches done while in Japan. The electrical frequency of such 
machines synchronises with the mechanical speed. However it is more 
convenient to express angles in electrical unit, i.e. electrical angle, rather 
than in mechanical unit, i.e. mechanical angle, for the reason that a syn¬ 
chronous machine can have more than two poles. Whichever is the 
case, one may consider only a single pair of poles and then consider 
the electrical, mechanical, and magnetic conditions, which are associ¬ 
ated with all the other pole pairs as repetitions of those for the pair 
being considered (cf Fitzgerald et al, 1971). 

The electrical and the mechanical angles of a generator are related 
by the relation 6 e = 1 6 m , where 0 e is the electrical angle of the output, 
6 m is the angle of the rotating shaft, and p is the number of poles of the 
machine. The frequency of the voltage is / = Hz, where n is the 
mechanical speed in rpm and the speed in revolution per second. 
The radian frequency w of the voltage is co e = § co m , where ui m is the 
mechanical speed in radian per second. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


373 



Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 



t 

Figure 5 Dynamics of the mechanical and the electrical angles 


Figure 5 shows the dynamics of the mechanical and the electrical 
angles of a synchronous machine with three pair of poles. The solid 
line is the mechanical, while the dash-dot line the electrical rotation. 
The mechanical and the electrical rotation of a synchronous machine 
are juxtaposed in Figure 5. In power system engineering one wants 
to control the power and the frequency. Examples of controllers are 
speed governors, actuators, regulators, and signal transducers. Speed 
governors can be described by A/ • K = XT, where Af is the change in 
frequency, K the gain, and X/ the load torque. The other controllers 
mentioned are high-gain power-amplifiers which convert things like 
position, oil pressure, and electricity into valve positions. 

The change in load in the power-frequency control of a synchron¬ 
ous generator can either be a load shedding where the load decreases 
causing the frequency to increase, a generator shedding where the load 
increases causing the frequency to decrease, or a short circuit where the 
generator is suddenly disconnected and as a result the frequency in¬ 
creases to the maximum value. The effects caused by the load change 
are related to the equation = Tpm — Tp, where J is the moment of 
inertia of the rotating mass, 9 the angular position of the rotating mass, 
Tpm the prime-mover torque, and Te the electrical torque. 


374 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 




Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


In 1998 I presented a paper (Tiyapan, 1998) at the ATAC-98 con¬ 
ference in Japan. The objectives of that study are to study the effects of 
a sign function input, to study the effects of £ in a singularly perturbed 
system, and to study a variable structure singularly perturbed system in 
other words those which have a sign function in the control input. Sin¬ 
gular perturbation of any system implies that it has £* terms multiplying 
the term x and that these terms £* approach zero. One can write down a 
given transfer function T(s) in the state space forms x = E _1 Ax + E _1 Bu 

and y = Cx + D. For example, T(s) = (JioXs+fnX^+20) can be re P re ‘ 
sented by the above state equations with 



--8 

-5 

1 

1.25 - 


- o - 


-1 

0 

0 

0- 


4 

0 

0 

0 

, B = 

0 


0 

1 

0 

0 

A = 

0 

0 

-11 

-2.5 

2.82843 

i E = 

0 

0 

1 

0 


. 0 

0 

4 

0 . 


. 0 . 


.0 

0 

0 

1. 


C = [ -2.83 1.6 0.71 0.88], and D = 0. 
Then if we rewrite E as 

-1 0 0 0 - 
0 10 0 
0 0 10 ’ 

.0 0 0 £. 


we can study the perturbation effect of the singularly in e as it decreases 
from £ < 1 towards £ <C 1, namely 


£ = 0.5, 
T(s) 
£ = 0 . 1 , 
T(s) 

£ = 0 . 01 , 
T(s) 

£ = 0 . 001 , 
T(s) 

£ = 0 . 0001 , 
T(s) 


2(s + 10) (s 2 + 4s + 29) 

( 8 2 + 8s + 20)(s + 2.2984) (s + 8.7015) 

2s 3 + 108s 2 + 458s + 2900 
(s 2 + 8s + 20)(s 2 + lls + 100) 

2s 3 + 1008s 2 + 4058s + 29000 
(s 2 + 8s + 20)(s 2 + lls + 1000) 

2s 3 + 10008s 2 + 40058s + (2.9 x 10 5 2.9) 
s 4 + 19s 3 + 10108s 2 + 80220s + (2 x 10 5 ) 

2s 3 + 100008s 2 + 400058s + (2.9 x 10 6 ) 
s 4 + 19s 3 + (1.0011 x 10 5 )s 2 + (8.0022 x 10 5 )s + (2 x 10 6 )' 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


375 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


To summarise the root locus behaviour when £ decreases, two complex 
zeros are fixed, that is s 2 + 4s + 29. Two complex poles described by 
s 2 + 8s 4- 20 remain the same throughout. The zero on the real axis 
moves left. The two poles on the real axis moves toward each other. At 
the point when the moving zero passes the pole on its left hand side 
the root locus changes its characteristics. 

Even as early as November 1998 I have decided that Control Sys¬ 
tems will not be the only area that I will do researches in, as can be 
seen in the title of the technical report number two (1998) which has 
the words system and control put in brackets. Here among other things I 
considered the system described by the differential equation 


d 2 x 


dx 

+ di= U 


(5) 


. This can be rewritten as the state equations x\ = X2 and £±2 = —£2 + u 
which represent a model in the standard form since the second equation 
has a real isolated root when £ = 0. By letting the right hand side of 
the state equation be zero, every point on the X\ axis is an equilibrium 
point. A model described by the equations x = f(t,x,z,e), x £ R n and 
ez = g(t,x,z,e), z £ R n is said to be in the standard form if and only 
if 0 = g(t,x,z, 0) has k isolated real roots 2 = hi(t,x ), i = 1,2 
(Khalil, 1996); then these two equations reduces to a quasi-steady state or 
slow model x = f(t, x, h(t, x), 0). 


For the present system the eigenvalues obtained from the Jacobian 


matrix A = 


81 

dx 


#=(# 1 , 0 ) 


0 1 

0 -h 


are 0 and Therefore it has an 


equilibrium subspace and the qualitative behaviour of the trajectories 
depends on the values of e, that is when £ > 0 all trajectories converge 
to the equilibrium subspace, when £ = 0 the system degenerates and 
is reduced to a first order system, and when £ < 0 then all trajectories 
diverge from the equilibrium subspace. In other words the system is 
stable when £ > 0 and unstable when £ < 0. By plotting the state 
planes and the time response of the state variables of this system when 
u = 0, one can see that the system is stable if £ > 0, and unstable if 
£ < 0. When |e| becomes smaller the response of the system becomes 
more rapid as ±2 = \x 2 rapidly converges to its root X 2 = 0 when £ 
approaches zero. The trajectory is a straight line which becomes more 
parallel to the X 2 -axis the closer £ gets to zero. 


376 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 



Figure 6 State plane of the system ed 2 x/dtr + dx/dt = u with 0 < e < 1 


As e approaches zero and u = 0 the system becomes X 2 = 0 or 
x\ = 0 which has the solution x\(t) = xi(0) and X 2 (t) = 0. The singular 
point £ = 0 is the point of discontinuity since the solution is stable 
when £ —> 0 + and unstable when £ —> 0~. 

Next study the effect of a feed back with the sign function, u = 
K sgn(Cxi + X 2 ), to the system in Equation 5, where C and K are real 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


377 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


constants. When C = K = 1, simulation results showed that the re¬ 
sponse of the controlled system changes more rapidly as |e| becomes 
smaller. In other words, the response becomes faster as £ approaches 
zero. This increase in speed of the response as £ decreases in magnitude 
applies for the unstable case where £ < 0 as well as when £ > 0. 



Figure 7 State plane of edfx/dtr + dx/dt = sgn(a;i + xf) when £ > 1 


The boundary layer or the transient period of the system remains 
378 July 2005 Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


the same either with or without the input, that is t of approximately 
[0,0.05] and [0,0.4] for e = 0.01 and 0.1 respectively. For e > 1 this 
boundary layer extends beyond one second. With the feed back input, 
the state plane trajectory reaches the line £2 = 0 during the transient 
period and then gently slides along it. 


The state equations with the input become X\ = X 2 and e ±2 = 
— X 2 + sgn(a;i + xf). When e = 0 the latter equation above becomes 
0 = — X 2 + sgn(xi + X 2 ) which gives the root £2 = sgn(xi + ah) that can 
not be written in the form ah = h(t,x i). This means that the equation 
has no isolated root and consequently one can not isolate the fast mode 
from the slow mode by introducing a new variable y = x 2 — h(t, x\). But 
for the purpose of finding the boundary layer model, let h(t,x 1 ,^ 2 ) = 
sgn(xi + ah). Then y = x 2 — h(t,x i,ah) = X 2 — sgn(£i + £ 2 ) and as a 
consequence X 2 = y + sgn(£i + £ 2 )- Introduce a new time variable r 
obtained from e^| = ^or^| = i when to = 0 , that is r = To + 
Jt tdt = l—Ai' This new time variable r is generally known as the 


stretched time variable. Then the equation e 


% + m s S n (xi+x 2 )] = -y 


becomes ^ ^ sgn(£i + £ 2 ) = —y. Substituting £ 2 = y + sgn(£i + £ 2 ) 

gives sgn(£i+ sgn(£i+£ 2 )), and therefore the boundary 

layer model is 37 = -y - 37 sgn(£i + £ 2 + 1 ) when £1 + £2 > 0 , is ^ = 
-y--$J :sgn(£i +£ 2 ) when x\ +x 2 = 0 , or is = -y - £ sgn(£i +£ 2 - 1 ) 


when £1 + £2 < 0. When x\ + ah >0 then ah = +1 and the reduced 
problem becomes x\ = +1. Likewise when x\ + £2 = 0 then ah = 0 and 
±1 = 0 , and when £1 + £2 < 0 then ah = —1 and x\ = — 1 . 


The discontinuous nature of the signum function makes the anal¬ 
ysis of the variable structure control system difficult. This is due 
to the fact that one can not analytically find where 

i = 1.2... , , ri and x(t) is an n-tuple vector. One way to overcome or go 
around this problem is to use a numerical approximation for the sign 
function where necessary. 

Let the input be « = — (x\ -t- £ 2 ) + sgn(£i + £ 2 ), then simulations 
show that the system has two timescales, which is the characteristic 
of a singularly perturbed system. Having a fast response within the 
boundary layer and a slow response elsewhere, the boundary layer 
becomes narrower and the response faster as e approaches zero from 
above (e —> 0 + ). Also, numerical studies shows that this boundary layer, 
in seconds, is approximately [0,0.05], [0,0.23], and [0,0.54] respectively 
when £ is 0.01, 0.1, and 1. With this input, the equations of the system 
become x\ = x and £±2 = — £1 — 2x2 + sgn(£i + £ 2 ). The last equation 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


379 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


becomes = 0 — x\ — 2 x 2 + sgn(xi + xf) when e = 0 , in other words 
X 2 = —\x\ + \ sgn(xi + X 2 ). To find the boundary layer, change the 


variable X 2 to y = X 2 — X 2 | e =o = X 2 + 3 X 1 — \ sgn(xi + xf). Therefore X 2 = 
y - 3 X 1 + 5 sgn(xi + x 2 ) =y - jxi + j sgn (xi+y- 3 X 1 + \ sgn(xi + x 2 )). 
Which is essentially that X 2 equals y — 3 X 1 + 3 sgn (y + 3 X 1 + 3 ) when 
X 1 +X 2 > 0, y— 3 X 1 + 3 sgn(y+ixi) when xi+x 2 = 0, and y- 3 X 1 + 3 sgn(y + 
ixi — 3 ) when xi + X 2 < 0. Substitute this into the equation for £±2 
above to get the boundary layer model e [^jf - 3 ^ + 3 sgn(xi + x 2 ) 


-2 y or £ - § + 3X1 - \ sgn(xi + x 2 ) + 3 sgn(xi + x 2 )j = -2 y. Use the 

stretched time variable r introduced above. Then ^7 = ~\y ~ \%\ ~ 
2sgn(xi +x 2 ), which is the same as saying that ^7 equals -§ y— \x\ - \ 
when xi + X2 > 0 , — — \x\ when xi + X2 = 0 , and —\y— \x\ + \ when 


xi + x 2 < 0 . 


Now for a variable structure control, let the hyperplane be de¬ 
scribed by s = cx 1 + X2 whose derivative is s = cx 1 + xtfe- Let the 
input be u = —Ksgns = — K sgn(cx\ + CX2) for K € R + . Choose a Lya¬ 
punov function as V = 5S 2 . The state equations become ±1 = X2 and 
±2 = — 7^2 — y( CXi T x i)- The derivative of the Lyapunov function is 

then V = ss = (CX 1 +X 2 ) ( 0 x 2 — ^X 2 — — (cxi +X 2 )) = c 2 xiX 2 ~ CXlXl +cx\ — 
2 

*2. _ cK^i S g n ( CXl +x 2 ) - 2 £p(cx 1 +X2). In order to observe the effect of e 
on the stability of the controlled system, let c = 2.7 and K = 3.3. From 
plots of V against xi and X 2 one may see that whether V be positive or 
negative depends upon the value £ takes. For example, there exists x 
which gives V > 0 when £ is 1.7 and 0.08, while if e = 0.3 then V < 0 
for all possible values of x. 


The original system (Equation 5) has the eigenvalues at Ai = 0 

Cl' 

and A 2 = —12.5, with the corresponding eigenvectors at v\ = 


0 


and 


v 2 = 


-0.0797 

0.9968 


respectively. The system is linear since A is a con¬ 


stant matrix and does not depend upon x. Also A is not a stability 
matrix since the condition ReAi <0 is not satisfied. The equilibrium 
point at the origin is not unique as it has already been pointed out 
earlier that every point on the xi-axis is an equilibrium point. The 
xi-axis is a nontrivial null space of the matrix A. The change of 


variables z = M l x r where M = [v 1 in] = 
Mz = AMz = - 


1 -0.0797 

0 0.9968 


'0 

0 

, and therefore A = 

'0 

0 

0 

-12.5 


0 

-12.5 


, leads to 
The solution 


380 


jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


to this system is z\{t) = z\(0) and 22 (f) = 22 ( 0 )e~ 12 ' 5i = Z2{0)e X2t . That 
A is no stability matrix can be seen by trying to solve the Lyapunov 
equation PA + A T P = — Q, where Q is a positive definite symmetric 
matrix. The Lyapunov equation for this system yields no solution. 

From simulation results, when e < 0 the controlled system is un¬ 
stable, while for e > 0 increasing K will widen the range of £ in which 
the controlled system is stable. That is, the larger the value of the gain 
K of the control input, the more robust with respect to e this control 
scheme. 

Note also that one way to stabilise the origin of the system is to 
solve the equation A T PE+E T PA-(E T PB+S)R~ 1 (B T PE+S T ) + Q = 0, 
or equivalently F T PE + E T PF - E T PBR~ 1 B T PE + Q- SR-'S 7 = 0, 
where F = A — BR~ 1 S 7 , Q and R are symmetric positive definite matri¬ 
ces, and the system is written in the form Ex = Ax + Bu. For example, 

letting Q = R = E = I and 5 = 0 leads to P = 94 ■ The 

feedback input is then u = —Gx, where G = R~ 1 (B T PE + S T ). The gain 
matrix will be G = [ 1 0.1194], Then the closed loop eigenvalues can be 

computed from (A — BG)V = EVT, where V = [v\ V 2 ], T = 

A i is the i ih eigenvalue, and Vi its corresponding eigenvector. In solving 
the Riccati equation the Frobenius norm of the relative residual matrix 
is 3.14 x 10 -16 . Simulations on Simulink show that when e = 0 the 
system is unstable. There exists a domain of attraction outside which 
the trajectory does not converge. 

Bibliography 

K Tiyapan. Cyberspace. Articles Online. ATSIST. 12 th December 1994 . 
also at 

www.nectec .or. th/bureaux / atsist 

K Tiyapan. The story of Andromedra. Sakkayaphab. 3, 2, 24-25. ATPIJ, 
Japan. Thai translation by Sroemsakdxi Uatrongcitta. November, 1995. 

K Tiyapan. Let's start at the very beginning. Sakkayaphab. 3, 4, 23- 
25. ATPIJ, Japan. January, 1996a. Thai translation by Sroemsakdxi 
Uatrongcitta. 

K Tiyapan. To be unkempt. Sakkayaphab. 3, 7. ATPIJ, Japan. April, 1996b. 
Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor Jidy 2005 


Ai 0 ' 

0 A 2 7 


381 



Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Thai translation by Suvanjay Bongsasukicvadhana. 


K Tiyapan. On pragmatists and idealists, submitted to Sakkayaphab. 
21 st October 1996 c. 


K Tiyapan. [Nhaun khaung Maurris] (The Morris Worm). Sakkayaphab. 
4, 3, 20-22. ATPIJ, Japan. December, 1996d. 


K Tiyapan. Variable structure control for a singularly perturbed sys¬ 
tem. 1998 Advanced Theory and Application of Control Systems. Hotel 
Ohashi, Lake Kawaguchi, Yamanashi, Japan. Fu-Cl-Fu-C8. 26 th -28 th 
September 1998 . 


382 


Jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


On the Present Simple Tense 

Kit Tyabandha, Ph.D. 

31 s * July 2004 


Let us recall the time when we were children and were taught 
our first lessons on English grammar. The first thing that we learnt 
at that time was possibly about the Present Simple Tense. After that, 
the next lesson was usually about the Present Continuous Tense. I 
remember thinking at that time that the Present Continuous Tense was 
unnecessarily coined up, since we have already got the Present Simple 
Tense. Why having two Tenses instead of one, when, obviously, both 
of them are trying to describe the same thing? Moreover, what is going 
on at present must still be in the course of action, therefore it can be 
considered as being continuous anyway, isn't it? .. .Is it? .. .Really? To 
see whether this is, let us have another look at this so-called Present 
Simple Tense and see whether it is as simple a thing as its name implies. 
Let us even forget its name for a while, if we have to, in order not to 
be alluded by its name into thinking that it must be easy. Because it is 
by no means so. 

First of all, let us imagine one situation (Khitapanna) as a case 
study. Imagine yourself driving along a road when a friend, who is 
sitting next to you, happened to mention out loud, "I see a white car 
before me.". The question is whether the sentence is correct. The 
answer could be either yes or no. If the answer were yes, however, 
then it is possible that this person has got some serious troubles with 
his mind. What he is actually telling is that he sees one white car there 
in front of him all the time, no matter what he may be doing, and 
despiting the fact that there may not even be any such car there (even 
if there was one there, the sentence will still have the above meaning). 
This is equivalent to the state of hallucination, or to the state of mind 
of a drug addict who has just taken a considerable amount of dose. So 
if this person is really your friend, then the answer had better be no. 
If the answer is no, then yet another question arises, "What is wrong 
with it, then?". The problem with this sentence is simply the fact that 
it is written with the Present Simple Tense. This Tense invariably, if 
not always, describes facts, things, or conditions which is true at all 
time. It does not represent things which occur at that moment and, 
unless some kinds of limits were used in order to reduce this vast span 
in time, is always timeless. But if something is always true, then it 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 


July 2005 


383 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


must also be true at present as well. The truth at the point at present 
is only an implication from the larger, universal truth. This is the 
reason why we must have the Present Continuous Tense, not as being 
a redundancy, but as being a necessity. It describes what is going on 
at the moment, has got both a starting point which is not very far back 
into the past, and has got an end point which is not so far away into the 
future. Notice that, had the former sentence been seasoned with either 
an auxiliary verb or an adverb of time, for example "I can see a white 
car before me.", or "'Whenever I see a white car before me, I always think 
of my old sport car which is kept in the garage.", then it would have 
been fine. In this specific case, since the continuous form is not possible 
for the verb to see, the only way possible is by using an auxiliary verb as 
we have done. Without any modifier of verb to indicate the frequency, 
the Present Simple Tense always describes facts. 

This the same reason why we say, for example "I have got a girl¬ 
friend.", and not simply "I have a girlfriend.". The last sentence would 
only have been true if this girlfriend had been there since the time that 
you were born, never turns into being your wife, never leaves you, and 
is certain to outlive you. Somehow to have every one of these con¬ 
ditions at the same time seems a little bit unlikely, doesn't it? Again, 
this example shows that the first sentence is not unnecessary, but is 
rather important. The second one, had it been a sentence in a com¬ 
puter programme, would surely have caused a syntactic error (that is 
the compiling of the programme stops, giving an error message or error 
messages), a semantic error (that is the programme could be compiled, 
though it may produce funny results once run, since it obviously has 
got a major erroneous assumption), or both. 

The Present Simple Tense is difficult to use and could easily lead 
to a totally different meaning to the intended one. For this reason, it is 
seldom found without an auxiliary verb. But whenever it is purposely 
used, it can produce such an indescribable effect that is only possible 
through its conciseness, seriousness, and many more other things im¬ 
plied. An example to this, taken from a song written by a rock band 
called Michael learns to rock, would be this well-written sentence, "I see 
your face before my eyes as I lay on my bed.". To a listener who notices 
the implication, it would mean much more than a full page trying to 
describing the same condition. This is a condition of one being very 
obsessed in infatuation. What double the effect on listeners is the inno¬ 
cence of this character described in the song, which is affected by the 
conciseness of the sentence, not saying any more than what is necessary. 
The sentence essentially tells us that whenever this person lies on his 
bed, he always see the face of his lover before his eyes (even with his 


384 


July 2005 


Vaen Sryayudhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


eyes closed!). A step further, and this would surely become madness. 
If the sincerity in this sentence is conveyed by its shortness, then the 
seriousness of it must have been implied by the actual presence of the 
Present Simple Tense which produces, as we have discussed, an effect 
of being everlasting, and thus severe. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


385 



Tyabandha Journal of Arts and Science 


Vol. 2, No. 3 


Book Introduction 
A Kiwi Lanna 
Kit Tiyapan 
2003 

ISBN 974-91237-3-5 


I was lucky to have become a part of the samnakdab (sword school) 
Sri Ayudhya and I am lucky to be here in New Zealand studying the 
sixth form. The former experience has taught me compassion, the latter 
how to do research. This last one is basically how to read and write. To 
read and write is not difficult, but to know how to do so that is another 
thing. It amounts to knowing how to think for yourself. Now I know, 
for instance, that good books always have two themes, and the more 
profound one is always the one in the background, a more abstract one 
and never a story. This is why it is always difficult to turn these books 
into a film where you can only show the less important theme and it 
is nearly impossible to express the remaining one. I learn all this in 
my Sixth Form English class here. Night and day I recite lines from 
Macbeth. Before I came here I had read Julius Caesar, but this is by far 
better. Not only this, I also study Art History, Mathematics and Music. 
Now I am a writer, thanks to Mr Lonsdale my English teacher then. 
I am also a mathematician, thanks to Mr Thompson who taught me 
the subject. I can not wait to become an artist and a composer which 
are what the other two of my teachers, the latter of whom is Vicky, 
had taught me to be. In this book, however, I only talk predominantly 
about literature. 


386 


jidy 2005 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 



Vol. 2, No. 3 


Tyabandlia Journal of Arts and Science 


Book Introduction 
A British Lanna 
Kit Tiyapan 
2003 

ISBN 974-91237-4-3 


It is England which turns me into a Christian. This is by no means 
a compliment to the country, but it certainly is one for the people. 
At the Moberly Hall where I live I read the translation of Hugo's Les 
Miserables, the book which greatly moves me and even before having 
been through the whole of it had made me profess Christianity. And 
here is my interpretation now, that God is the Superset. Therefore, if we 
believe in the one and only one Creator by definition we have Christ in 
our heart but mathematically speaking we are the Me in Christ in the 
Universe in God. Here I say Christ as a definition as distinguishable 
from Jesus who is also a person. A similar definition to the one above, 
and which is what I prefer now, is this, that it is instead a Me in 
Universe in Christ in God. It is easy to see from this, that we should 
explore the universe because they are the same family as ours. In other 
words they are one of us, though they may not know it, so we need 
to find and preach the Gospel to them. England and my teachers here 
have taught me many thing. It is also here that I volunteer in the 
Community Action and through it got to know Clair. But I had better 
leave you to read about her yourself. 


Vaen Sryayndhya, Editor 


July 2005 


387